Hello, our today's topic is about learning technologies. We will approached the topic from the perspective of human resource development. We'll address foundations and applications of learning technologies in the field of HRD. HRD stands for Human Resource Development. What is technology? The word technology can be used in different contexts with different meanings. For example, people may think of technology as something tangible, a phone, a computer, a lift, a car, a rocket, a spaceship, machine of sort. Or people may think of technology as something that is intangible such as Internet, social media, artificial intelligence, machine learning. To guide today's discussion, we want to be clear in the context of this lecture what we mean, when we talk about technology. So, here's a couple of definitions of technology will probably relevant to today's discussion. The first one is from the Merriam Webster Dictionary and it raised, ''Technology is the application of knowledge to the practical aims of human lives or to changing and manipulating the human environment. Technology includes the use of materials, tools, techniques, and sources of power to make life easier or more pleasant and work more productive. Whereas, science is concerned with how and why things happen. Technology focuses on making things happen. Technology began to influence human endeavor as soon as people began using tools. It accelerated with the industrial revolution and the substitution of machines for animal and human labor.'' According to this definition, technology is an applied field, it's about applications. So, the second definition is more relevant to the HRD field. The term technology refers to the application of the sciences to the objectives of industry, business, government systems, and human endeavors. From this definition, you can think of technology as something that we can use to improve the performance of industry, business, governments, systems, and human endeavors. For example, applications that can be used to increase productivity and profitability of a business organization or an application that can be used to improve the service of a government agency and so on. To further narrowing down our discussion, we want to focus on information technology. When we talk about information technology in the field of human resource development, they generally focus on the following three areas. First, the tangible hardware, computers, smartphones, tablets, and so forth. Second, software applications that include E-Learning, MOOC, mobile learning, E-Mentoring tools, simulation games, web-based tutorials, video conferencing, informal learning communities, game-based learning, blogging, wiki, virtual 3D learning space, social media, cloud, big data, artificial intelligence, machine learning, and so forth. Third, it may include comprehensive tools that can be used to manage information and learning such as Knowledge Management Systems, Learning Management Systems, and so forth. Technology is everywhere and can function in many different ways and in many different roles. It can help us learn and help us keep track of things such as this running watch I have. I have a running watch right here. It count steps, the speed, and the miles if I run. If I run too slowly it tells me that I'm below the target speed. If I'm too fast, my heart rate goes to high. It helps me to slow down. I'm laughing at this sometimes because we are so dependent on the technology to tell us what to do. Sometimes, we forgot to use our own instincts. I know that because while it was puffing and huffing, I should know that I need to slow down just by instincts but no, I need to check my watch to see my heart rate if it's too high and I need to slow down. So, technology helps us organize. Keep us on track and keep us going, help us making progress to achieve our goals. So, we often hear people in HRD use technology in this four phrases. People talking about instructional technology, human performance technology, learning technology, performance support technology. So, let's talk about each one of those. So, we know what each of them means. Instructional technology is the theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation of processes and resources for learning. So, you can say that instructional design is instructional technology. Now, let us look at the next one. Human performance technology. Talk about a systematic approach to improving productivity and competency, uses a set of methods and procedures and a strategy for solving problems, for realizing opportunity relate to performance of people more specifically, it is a process of selection, analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation of programs to most cost effectively influence human processes, performance analysis, cause analysis, and intervention and selections, and can be applied to individuals, small groups, and large organizations. A bit of a large-scale system than instructional technology. Now, let's look at the next one. Learning technology. Learning technology is the broad range of communication, information, and related technologies that can be used to support learning, teaching, and assessment. For example, MOOC, it's a learning technology, E-Learning platforms and so forth. Now, let's look at the next one. Performance support technology. Performance support technology is any learning modality, resource, or asset that is accessible and applicable at the moment of need. It is embedded in the work process such that the learning is accessed in the context of the workflow and help solve a very specific business problems delivered via technology. I'm sure you have Google, in the middle of a project to learn how to move forward. In a workplace, many professions use performance support technology. For example, doctors in hospitals that uses them all the time nowadays. So now, we have to go through four different phases of how technology may be used in the context of human resource development. Next, we would like to focus on learning technology. So, in terms of learning technology, I would like to show you how it evolved over time. So, let's look at this table. So, what you can see in this table is THE technology evolution illustrated by ASTD competency studies over the years. So, the first one is 1976. Is the first ASTD competence study. In that study it presented learn technology as teaching aid. It indicating what are running technology is about projectors, reduce TV monitors or podcasts, personal computers. It was used mainly to enhance content delivery. In 1983, the second competency study, it reported that technology has become a tool, it's no longer just a teaching aid anymore. At this time, interactive video, cable TV lecture, large-scale learning applications, automated office system became available. At this period, computer competencies, audiovisual skills, were consider specialized skills. If you look at that time period, AV technician was a very popular job title. We were conducting a training program for example, if you need a video or need to show a video, and you will need a TV, right? So, you will call the AV technician, and the person will bring you a TV in and set it up for you to use. Now, we can do everything with our own portable device like a computer or a tablet. In a year 1989, the competency report suggests that technology has became a required competency instead of a specialized job title or job. So, people start using simulations for high risks of training such as in the military, for the airplane pilot, in a nuclear power plant, and et cetera. Expert systems start to emerge. People talked about artificial intelligence at that time. Satellite technologies become available and so on. So, the general use of computer and AV technology was no longer sufficient. So, we need to learn how to use computer applications to search for information and provide solutions. The next year it was 1997. Technology became embedded in our daily work. Web-based training, satellite network, multiple median delivery of training, real-time delivery via technology, electronic performance support systems become reality at that time. The rich of technology become global, and it has supported global expansion of business and at that time. In year 2004, technology has become part of us. You probably hear about WEB 2.0, PDA, Personal Data Assistance, and podcast, mobile phones, wireless technologies, just in time and real-time learning. That's when we start the feeling that we could not function without the technology. More recently in 2013, the ASTD competent study has realized that we have become technology dependent. Personal mobile devices, something that we just cannot leave behind. They are blended learnings in both formal and informal settings, social intelligence, big data, machine learning, artificial intelligence. We become dependent on technology. You can see how much technology has changed over time in this roughly 40-years period, and how much technology has changed us from overhead projector to tablet, from a specialized skill to everyday routine, and to be part of us. The change is getting even faster everyday. So, here is the summary of how IT has impacted our lives. Amazon changed the way we purchase product. Shopping online is a thing now. Beyond books, clothes now we can also buy food, household supplies online. Frankly, you don't have to leave your house now. Facebook changed the way we communicate with others. We communicate via software, social media. We see less and less of each other in real physical sense. So, learning technology has revolutionized the way we learn. Now you can take in this course, via MOOC, right? So, you see a video of me right now, but you may never see me in person. Digital device has transformed the way work is done. The line between work and personal space are blaring, and we work frankly all the time. Here's how IT has impacted HR function within organizations. There are changes in how performance management is conducted, for example Goldman Sachs, Accenture, General Electric, Gap, Adobe Systems, IBM, and Microsoft, these companies are all experimenting with online ongoing feedback to replace the annual reading of employees. So, managers can provide immediate and more frequent feedback. There are also changes in recruiting and staffing strategies. HR can conduct online searches, looking at the LinkedIn, Facebook pages of a potential employee, before making hiring decisions. HR can use software to find the right candidates. Companies can repurpose social media for learning and information sharing purposes, create community help practice to solve real problems. Now, let's look at IT and how it has impacted the field of learning. Now, people learn with device such as a computer, a tablet like what we are doing right now, because everything is online. We can provide a richer content, and provide references and books and articles, videos, maps for example. We can deploy richer strategies for delivery of learning. Provide just-in-time learning. We no longer worry about spacial divergence, because we are no longer bound by space or location we are online. As a result of this changes, learning have become a truly learning driven, performance driven. Learning is increasingly socially constructed. Learning has become a process of co-creation called learning in community or practices. So, in order to truly embrace technology, we need to prepare ourselves for a significant paradigm shift. Rather than being a mere technological means to a predetermined end, IT needs to be understood as social environment whose technical features are perhaps the least problematic and best understood. We need to understand how technology has changed us in how we approach social interactions, problem-solving, decision-making, and so on. As an instructional designer or HRD professional we are concerned about how people learn. We need to reexamine the instructional design process, and we need to question whether a step-by-step process still sufficient. Learning and decision often occur in real time. So, it is necessary for us to move beyond the linearity metaphor, and thinking in terms of simultaneity. Design may need to happen in real time. Simultaneity requires instant integration, convergence of ideas, and information. So, how are we going to do that? I want to leave you with some fundamental research questions. So, what may be the new employee learning model in today's IT rich environment? That's the first question. The second question says; what does simultaneity learning mean to HRD processes? How can we facilitate simultaneity learning? How has IT influenced the socialtechnical aspect of organizational systems? Those are the questions I'd like for you to ponder and think about it. Thank you very much for listening. I hope you have developed an understanding of how technology has evolved over the years, and what are the current challenges we face as HRD professionals. Thank you.