[MUSIC] Imagine the answer is yes. Would be problem. Of course the answer is not yes. But the question really is worth a lecture, can be lecture number eight. What's the impact of technology on the way we think? I'm a grandfather now. I see my grand daughter. There is an impact. But again, as a philosopher, we want to be rigorous in the answer. We want to put some words and finding the nuance, etcetera, etcetera. So how could we start? Tools are not new. Are not new. And probably the first of all, I don't know, but maybe the first of all was the lever, the lever. Akshi made, Akshi made 2000 years ago. He said give me a lever, and I'm going to lift the world. I'm going to move the world. And this is definitely a tool. This is definitely a tool. And it open like a first category of tools. Tools dedicated to amplify or force to give us more strength. So it start with the lever. But an engine is in the same category, even if it came 2,000 years after, it's the same category. And I like biking so I put a bike. Those three belong to the same set, tools designed to help us to amplify our force. And when you take some distance, which is the rule of a philosopher, you can see four different groups of two. This is number one. Number two is about senses. Exactly the way we have tried to amplify our power, we also have designed tools. To amplify our senses. A telescope, for example. It was used by Galileo. Galileo made his theory mostly because he had the chance to have a telescope. He could see things in the, in the sky, nobody saw before. So it help by increasing sensitivity. And the, and the same second rule, you have X-ray. If you look at medicine, of course progress made by x-ray is incredible, and now you have the IRM and things like that. But it's about the, the same, the same movement. And some people who don't hear well and now they have can hear from small systems put in the ear. It's the second group. It helps us to increase the way we feel, we hear, we see, etcetera. You have many, many other examples. Then you have a third one, which is not so much about us, but much more about outsides. Tools designed to harness the nature. If you take, for example, a dam. What's a dam? It's a technology. It's a tool, which is really help in such a way we harness a bit more, a bit more, the nature, and the same category a bit surprising but you have the pill. It's the same. They belong both to them and the pill belongs, belong to the same group of technology. That help us to control a bit what's happening. And those three first groups are maybe not so much an issue. There is an issue. Of course there is an issue with old biotech, etcetera. There is an issue. But not so much on thinking. The fourth group, tools that help us to think better, to model the way we think and of course the first example I show is very old one. But when this was designed, it helped somebody to calculate a bit faster. So it's a help. It's a support for a different kid of issue: the way we think. And in this category, you have like a clock. What's a clock? It models the way we think because in this particular case, it's the time. It transformed the time in, in numbers. And I put a spreadsheet just to show that this category is not from now. It's not from now. It is globally the set of tools that have an impact on the way we think. And we will see later, of course, which kind of impact, stupid or not stupid, of course it's not. None of them, but in between. But, we will try to explain a little bit how it happens. It's obvious. The fourth category not only help us to think better, but have an impact on the way we think. Let's look at the relationship between mathematics and computer science. Mathematics helped to design, to start computer science. And then what happened, computer science helped backwards to push mathematics further, like with the fractal theory and things like that. So there is a back and forth, which was not the case with the three first categories. So, it's obvious there is an impact, and we should dig a little bit because thinking it, it really did. The essence of man is about to think. The way we organize our memory. The way we write, Nietzsche, Nietzsche, Frederick Nietzsche, he died in 1900. He received just before his death a type machine, and he wrote in a, in a letter he was a bit surprised, and a bit intrigued by the power of this machine, with a type machine. So, the problem is not new. The way we write, the way we organize old memory. The way we, we, for example, we look at screens. Now, we can look at two different windows at the same time. This kind of parallel thinking is another issue. It never happened before. It was a book, you have a book. Now, we have two screens, at the same time. Now, we have to think with unfinished information with uncertain information, with unstable information. And this is really new. And this has an impact. This has an impact. As a last example, let's go back to my lecture number two IBDs, number two. Remember the category, what was a category? Probably the greatest invention all time. Why? Because it was Aristotle, again, Aristotle. He invented this category,. To help us to organize the world and to start a new science, the science of logic. Without category, you cannot have logic, you cannot logically think, So, category, that's what I told during lecture two, category is probably the ultimate need we have to think. What happens today? If you go on Google, and type philosopher example, incredible, Google propose categories. And you see below, I know French philos, Greek philosopher and different categories. It means that from Google you're like a proposal. A set of categories proposed. That was the rule of the human being. So definitely the question is important.