[MUSIC] Welcome back. This is lecture number five. Out fifth step in this journey across philosophy, and business, and innovation, and strategy. Let me recap a little bit, let me summarize. Lecture number one was a deep dive in the challenge of changing. And we, you remember, we saw this double challenge, to change perception and reality. Lecture number two, we went in another dimension. We tried to understand exactly how we think. Of course, it's combined with lecture number one, because you'd need to think to change, you need to change to think, et cetera, et cetera. So, in the next two vid, two videos, in the next two lectures, even, we will, go back, and probably more deeply, in the business world. This course is dedicated, the goal is to help managers to run their company in a more efficient way. And philosophy can help, since it's, it's a world where, my world has no numbers. You only have concepts. And if you want to be rigorous, you need a tool. Philosophy is the appropriate tool. Don't expect the rules. Don't expect a method. How to be creative like [UNKNOWN] to be sure, to produce good, right ideas. No. Rules don't exist. Rules don't exist. In this world of creativity, sometimes you can show something. And then you can show the opposite. For example, is it better to be alone to have ideas? Sometimes. Is it better to be with a lot of people? Sometimes. You cannot choose. Sometimes you have great ideas because you're alone traveling in the, the country. Sometimes you have great ideas because we are, you are with other people. You exchange and, well it forces creativity. Do you need comfort? Sometimes yes, sometimes no. Is it better to have knowledge to be creative? Do you need to know a lot of things, sometimes, but sometimes it's better not to know anything. Ignorance, sometimes is more helpful, and, it's for me a good definition of creativity. It's like ignorance management. Because, in the end, to be creative is to, to, to think about something you don't know, so ignorance is a challenge. There are no rules, but, there are some facts, some danger, and if you understand exactly how the brain is working, we will be better. And that's, of course, the idea of the whole course. And, something is striking today. There are technologies everywhere. A lot of technology. And, in a way it helps. In another way it's a danger. The danger is, is this, to believe the past of the present, plus, new technology is equal to the future. No. This leads to disappointment, and this is not new. For example, calculating machine. Before electricity, you had like a lot of systems with slide rules, and abacus, and a lot of systems to calculate result electricity, and even like big mechanical machine, you had to do something like that. When electricity came, the first use of electricity was to put an engine here, so, the man has not to do [UNKNOWN] anymore. And, it's a poor use of electricity of course. If you want to be efficient with electricity in calculating, you have to get rid of this past plus technology [UNKNOWN] future, and to put the system completely on the different thinking mode, and the question is, okay, what I'm doing here, I'm calculating. Electricity exists. How can I combine, from scratch, electricity with calculating. And that's how people went to, of course, to computer, et cetera, et cetera. So, there are no rules but there are like [LAUGH] a way of thinking, that's, that's the point. There are some facts and, if we go a little bit deeper in the business. Let's emphasize one particular point. An idea has to be, has to be frozen if you want it to produce something. This is true for any kind of idea, and of course for a strategy. What is a strategy? A strategy is a simplification. If you go back to the model we saw last time. A strategy is a simplification. You have to simplify the world, if you want to change it. A strategy has to be frozen, of course. Imagine a company where, I don't know, every Monday morning there is a email throughout the company, update of a strategy. Nobody can work anymore. You need, really, a frozen set of rules, in order to grow and to develop the company. Fine. The strategy is frozen, but the world is not. The world is not. The world changes every day. So, what happens? Like a gap, a growing gap between, the way you see, you see the strategy, and the world. And one day, you need another strategy. Of course, there is no other option. Not a single strategy is good forever. Okay. You need another strategy. A strategy is a simplification. It means, it's going to be a shock. It's going to be a shock. Why? Because changing perception, changing perception, is never a continuous process. Changing perception is always like a step. And you only have two modes. Either you drive the process, you drive the process. You invent this new strategic vision, or, suddenly you realize you were wrong. You're really out of the game. You suddenly realize, hey, the world is different. Oh, I'm too late, competitors are way ahead of me. Two on, two options only, and I named them. Eureka or Caramba. Eureka, you build your next vision. Caramba, you're the victim. You, you must follow. You don't run yourself your business. And that's probably the, the way we will talk the next two lectures. In the, in this lecture, I will go into some exercises to emphasize exactly the Eureka and Caramba, because what, so one thing is interesting. On the cognitive side, Eureka and Caramba are exactly the same. Suddenly, one perception is replaced by another one. Book. Book. So, it's exactly the same here but of course, one is nice and the other one is much less nice, and we will try to see how to produce more Eureka and, and less Caramba. The next, the next video within this lecture, I will talk about cognitive bias. Cognitive bias and you have two different types of bias. Sometimes you are wrong, even if you are within a ded, deduction process. Sometimes you are wrong, in an induction process, and those are going to be the next two videos.