Why do things happen? This is a very, very old question. And the very first answer to this question came from Aristotle. Aristotle was asked, why is this statue, the statue here? He said there are four causes. You have a statue because you have marble. The matter. You have a statue because you have the shape of a horse, the form. You have the statue because somebody hit on the marble and really built, sculptured, the statue. And according to Aristotle, there is a force because, you have the statue because there was a goal to celebrate the victory of general I don't know who, etcetera, et cetera. So, when Aristotle was asked why is something. His answer was this. Four causes, matter, the form, form information, the coefficient cause, the person really sculpture. And the reason why, the, the goal to celebrate, I don't know what. When you look at Aristotle answer, it can be used a fixed model, because it is true for a statue, and it's true for a car. Why is this car? Aristotle would have answered, because you have steel, because you have a design, because you have robots and because a company wants to make profits. So, in one hand, the answers are really different, but they are still consistent with the statue. Because, of course, it's not marble anymore, it's steel. But doesn't change that much. But now it becomes interesting. Let's take a laptop. Why the laptop? Matter may be some steel, yes, but is it really important? The design, yes probably better design is better to sell., I don't disagree with that. But is really the value of the laptop in the design? Not sure. Efficient. Who really built it? Who? Is the software the reason enough? The hardware. You don't know? And the final cause thought, what's the reason of the laptop? So, you don't need to have clear answer to the four questions, but you see that between the car and the laptop, used today by all of us, car and laptop, you see the shift. For a car, you still can use Aristotle's model to answer, it's useful. For the laptop you're a bit lost, you're a bit lost. The matter, you cannot answer, and this is interesting, it shows, it shows. Again, we need new mindset. Why do things happen? Of course in history of philosophy, people, some people disagree with Aristotle. Lots of people disagree. The final cause disappeared during the Renaissance, and really the guy who killed Aristotle was David Hume. David Hume said goals don't exist. It really killed Aristole. And let's have a small experiment. I have this. And I, I'm going to open my hands. What's going to happen? [SOUND] This. Okay, you're not surprised. But now look at the difference between what you have seen and what you have thought. What did you see? You see he opens his hands, and this piece fell on the ground. But in your mind you have, it fell on the ground because he opened his hands. That's what you have in your mind, but you haven't seen the cause. And that's human message. Cause are artificial, they don't exist. Senses don't see causes. You can see I open my hand, you can see some falling on the ground. That's your eyes, no problem with this. You can see the sequence, one and two, but you cannot see the cause. And indeed you said, you cannot access the cause by the senses. He went too far. You, he said cause don't exist. Of course, and that's why Kant. Kant, he said, you woke me up. Woke me up. And Kant had a completely different answer again, he said coexists, exists but not in the world like said. It exists as a concept up here in the mind. And that was big shift again. But, today I restocked human counts. Maybe, maybe they're all gone. There is a big thing around causality, and that's going to be the last video of this lecture.