[MUSIC] Welcome back. One, one of the key messages we receive from lecture one was this one. If you want to change the world, you have to act. If you want to change the perception you have about the world, you have to think. And this lecture is about thinking. We need a better understanding what is to think. We need it, and maybe this lecture we won't use too much the word creativity. A little bit, but my experience have shown that in this expression, creative thinking, in the end, the key word is not creative, the key word is thinking. Voila, that's the, that's the goal of, of this lecture. What is to think? We will give you a definition, we will understand how it works, some characteristics etcetera, etcetera. When a father or a mother tells somebody, I'm thinking about my children, this is true. This is true. When the CEO of a bank tells a journalist, I'm thinking about my clients, this is not true. It's impossible. He has a million, 2 million clients. It is impossible to think about 2 million people. So, this is a good starting point. What does he do exactly, the CEO? In a way, he thinks. There are two possibilities. Either he thinks about one particular client he met the day before, and then he's a bit like a father or a mother, or he thinks through, concepts. He, in his mind, has like concepts, like categories, retired people, small enterprises, I don't know. He has concepts. It's interesting because we have to understand exactly how it happens. To make a long story short, if CEO wants to think about his clients, he has to forget 99% of his clients. It's a bit strange from when we were at school, we were at least convinced that key to thinking is mostly about accumulating knowledge. Yes and no. It's also, and it's a bit like a requirement, if you want to think about a million people, you have to forget 99.9999% of those people. And you have to build concepts, boxes, category, clusters. And then you can do something. But we have to understand the deep nature of this mechanics. How do we build concepts? And it's not that easy. There is a novel it was written by Jose Luis Borges from Argentina. And the novel is Funes or Memory. That's the name of the novel. It's a short novel. It's the story of a cowboy. And the cowboy, on his horse one day, has an accident. He falls on his head, and starting this day, He doesn't forget anything anymore. Infinite memory. Well, he reads a book, meets a friend, and the friend tells of, ask Funes, hey Funes, you've just read this book. What do you think about this book? Funes doesn't answer. So, the friend gets a bit nervous. Hey, you've just read the book. Tell me what you think about this book. What happens? Funes remember the book, 100% of the book from the very first to the very last sentence. And he can not have any judgement about the book. Borges reminds us that the step number one of thinking is to forget. Is to forget. If you want to, let's take an example. You've been to a movie recently, whatever the movie. If you're able today to give a judgement about this particular movie, it is because you forgot 99% of the movie. And the same for a book to say you have been on holiday. If you have a judgement about what happened to you, it is because you forget 99% of what happened to you. It's strange, but this is true. And to forget is the good starting point for this lecture about thinking. Step number 1, because you forget, but two points. Point one, you don't control what you forget. If you go to a movie, you're in a movie. When you go out of the movie, you forget a lot, but you don't decide during the movie, I will remember this, I don't care about that, I will, you don't do. It happens, and you're out of control. Second point, if you go with a friend to the same movie, you will not forget the same thing. Because it's a relationship between the movie and yourself. If you have a passion for guitar, and if during the movie, there are two minutes with a guitar, the chance is high you will remember this piece of the movie. But if you don't care about music, probably you will forget. So, you see how difficult it is. How difficult it is. We need to forget a lot about the world if you want to think and to change the world. And we will see that now in more details.