So let's consider our learning resources, and we'll start with our course website. I think the website should be rather intuitive for you, so I won't be labor its organization. I'll just simply note that on the left-hand column, you'll find the content of the course organize by weeks, and within each week there will be some texts that will introduce you to the lesson of interest. There'll be some objectives for you to consider. And then you have the content. And that content comes in the form of video lectures from myself. And I would highlight that there are notes files that accompany nearly every video lecture. And that note file is for your own use, your own annotations. Many of them are available to you as both a PDF document and a Microsoft Word document. And given your preference, you can choose to acquire one or both kinds of formats and interact with that however you see fit. Of course, I would just ask that you consider this to be fair use for your own studies and learning. It is my intellectual property that I'm willing to share with you, so please don't repurpose this for any other reason. Just use it for your own studies and advancement. We also have a fabulous new resource that I'm so excited to introduce you to. It's a website called Learn Medical Neuroscience that was created by a very special individual who was with me in the very first edition of Medical Neuroscience and has supported thousands of learners from all over the world since then, as a community teaching assistant and now a mentor. Her name is Ellen Vos, and I will now turn to Ellen and ask her to give you a tour of this wonderful website that you can access at any time to support your learning of medical neuroscience. >> Hello, students of medical neuroscience. Welcome to the course. I'm glad to meet you. My name is Ellen, Ellen Vos. And as Vos is a very common name in the Netherlands, where I come from, I've added Wisse on Coursera, so you might meet me as Ellen Vos-Wisse on the discussion forum. I was a student myself in 2013, in the first run of the course, and I've been asked to be a teaching assistant and mentor ever since. As a teaching assistant, I try to help people on the course by giving them study tips in discussion forum and by creating links to useful content, explaining or going deeper into core concepts of the course on the course wiki in a virtual lab. But the virtual lab was not easy to access. You had to log in to the course, and then log in to the course wiki again to get at that. So this year I decided to make a website supporting the learners of medical neuroscience, and that website is called LearnMedicalNeuroscience.nl. I want to take you on a quick tour there. We go to the homepage. We see our instructor, Professor White, visualizing knowledge. And that is very important, but it's important to do it yourself, not just look at other people's do that, because the learning experience is far less then. And there's also the structure of the website Learn Medical Neuroscience. There's the Learning Community, Virtual Lab, which is the core of the website, the Learning Materials, and the Neurological Exam. If I take you to the top, there we have the main menu of the website and I want to take you to the Learning Community. At the top you see the carousel of images with GetNeuro on Instagram. So if you have an image there and you give it GetNeuro then it appears on this carousel. I'll explain it later. The Learning Community, you can actually benefit by active participation. Learning medical neuroscience takes effort. It doesn't come easily. And learn socially on the discussion forum is a great help. The discussion forum, on the course home page you follow the arrow to course content. There is a menu at the left of the screen and you can see a button labeled discussion that takes you to the course forums. Make a habit to visit the forums regularly. Start a thread, and when others start to respond on it, go back to it and keep it alive for some time, and join in in other discussions as well. Going to the discussion forum is not at the expense of your study, but it really strengthens your study. There are the GetNeuro Challenges by course staff. You're invited to join in those challenges. And we'll go to the news page later and I'll show you some of the winners of the first session of 2016, of the first two GetNeuro Challenges. There are also Google Hangouts that students have the opportunity to ask questions directly to Professor White. They are usually very stimulating events. And the video embedded here is from a hangout later in the first session, the last session of medical neuroscience, so all students were advanced in their studies then. So don't hesitate to ask explanatory questions as well. In the second hangout of the 2016 last session, Grace from Denmark has very good questions on nature, nurture, and self-organization, and Professor White starts explaining. I had taken the course four times, seen the videos multiple times, but that session during that hangout gave me so much more insight. I really learned from that. There's also an active Facebook group with a lot of social interactions. It's a lot of fun, and I advise you to join. There are some pictures of neuroscience behind the scenes. Okay, let's go to the Virtual Lab. The Virtual Lab is really a scroll-down menu. And I want to go to the Virtual Lab itself, so I click the Virtual Lab. And there you see the layout of those Virtual Lab pages and the Neurological Exam, they all have a featured video on the top. They don't have the news and the additional menu on the right side of the screen. Our featured videos are diffusely connected with the course, so I'll show you one in neural signaling. That is, they have information on not only the unit or the place they are presented in but usually with more places within the course. Here is the structure of the Virtual Lab. You have the General Resources, the Unit Pages, and Additional Neuroscience Sites. I want to take you to the General Resources. If I scroll down I want to I click Neuroscience, 2nd edition, the first resource, and that takes you to the second edition of the Neuroscience textbook on the NCBI bookshelf. It is not easily searchable, it shows you the content and if you want to look into this book, you have to enter the key term and search this book and then you can get the information. I'll show you more about it later when we get to the summary of pathways. Closed it again, and then I go click the glossary that takes you to the webpage of the course textbook and it gives you a very good glossary which can be very useful in your studies. And then I want to go to Genes to Cognition Online, and I click the 3D brain on the right side of the screen and there you get the whole brain. And if you mouse over it, you see the different parts and you get the names. With a button on the left-hand side, you can rotate it and go from left to right. But I want to show you something else. I want to go to the drop-down menu, and I select thalamus. That really shows you the thalamus in its surroundings, in a way that it's situated in the forebrain, so it really tells you a lot more. If you go to the left side, you get more information, the overview of the thalamus, a case study, associated functions, and associated cognitive disorders associated with damage. So this resource is important in more stages in the course. It's important in neuroanatomy but also for the final exam. So we will find this resource on more places of the website. It is intended to be like that, it's not an oversight of me. Because people enter the website at very different pages and I don't want people to miss it. I close this again and we go to handwritten tutorials. This is the homepage of the handwritten tutorials. These are another resource that I like because they are schematic drawings of structures which the information is built up. That, it's drawn first, and then the names are given. So it can takes you step by step through a whole lot of information. If we go to Brainstem Anatomy 1 Midsagittal structure, you see the video on the left. And I want to show you the complete picture at this moment. So I click the drawing and there you see the completed picture that is completed at the end of the video. And you can use that for your own study and to start drawing for yourself, of course. I close that now, I close brainstem anatomy, and I scroll back to the top. I go to Virtual Lab Unit 1, Neuroanatomy. Here I want to go to the second resource, The Human Brain by Anatomy Amsterdam. I click that and then I go to Cerebrum slices in a menu on the left-hand side. And I click the first of the coronal slices. In the little brain at the top left, you see that it is a brain slice very much anterior in the brain. Here you can put on, click on the labels. And then you see that those labels are a bit more Latin. It is is bulbus olfactorius by Professor White and the textbook talks about olfactory bulbs. So you'll have to get used to it if you want to use this website. I turn the labels off, and then with the little arrow in the button below that, I go to second, third, fourth slice, and I give you with the labels. A lot of these structures, you'll meet in the course. And by going from anterior to posterior in the brain, you really get some insight in three-dimensional structures of the brain. I think it's very useful, especially for the people that do not have cell views. But even if you do have cell views, it might a nice addition. Okay in the main menu at the left-hand side, I take you to the MRI. And here again, you have frontal, axial, and images. And you can put on the labels or not, and you go from one image to the next, from posterior to anterior, or from the middle to the side. I'll close this one. It's a very, very nice website so do explore. Okay, and I want to take you to lateral surface of the cerebral hemispheres. And I click Gross Cortical Anatomy by Handwritten Tutorials. I want to show you a bit of the video and just let you enjoy it for a bit and then we'll continue. We go to the YouTube site, and I enlarge it because I like to look at it bigger. >> Hi, in this video, I'm going to talk about the gross cortical anatomy of the brain. So we're going to be looking at the brain from its lateral aspect. So I'll just draw it up here. There are two ways of looking at the brain. One is its gross anatomy, which is just the anatomy as we see it. And the other is looking at it functionally, so splitting up the brain into its functional parts. Then we're going to look at just the gross anatomy, and in the next video, we'll look at the functional anatomy and how it relates. So here we have the central sulcus, and this is a very important sulcus in the brain. >> Okay, well you can watch the rest of the video for yourself but you get an impression of what this resource looks like. I want to take you to Unit 2, Neural Signaling. And here I want to show you the featured video. You can look it on the page, of course. But that's a bit small. You can go to YouTube and enlarge it. And here you see what I mean with connected with more units. This is neural signaling but it also tells you more about what goes on in the brain. So it's relevant to brain anatomy. It's also relevant to Unit 3 on sensory systems because there's a large collection of gray matter nuclei in the forebrain. The thalamus that are important for sensory systems. It's also important for motor systems because there are other collections of gray matter nuclei in the forebrain, the basal ganglia, that are important and that you'll need in the motor systems. And this video really sets your frame of mind for understanding what goes on in and around those nuclei. Now we're entering the brain. Look, and that's corpus callosum over there, wonderful. Well, we close it, and we go back again to learn medical neural signs. Here I want to show you a resource in ionic basis of the resting membrane potential. The last one and action potential. Then you go to the site of the neuroscience textbook. And those animations are wonderful because they really build up the information and go step by step. You can go through the animation narrated or through. I'm going to take you through though. And I want to go to slides 7. That shows you the action potential. And slide 8 shows you the action potential and the Membrane channels that are important in different phases of the action potential. If you go click further, you can see them opening and closing in different phases of the action potential. So, those are really valuable resources. You need animation from this textbook, but also from other textbooks from the same publisher. I'll close this one. And we go back to Unit 3, Sensory Systems. I want to draw your attention to a resource that was created for us by a community teaching assistant, Jackson. Who did it in 2014. You may bring section cards and bring section images for tracing tracts. I want to go to the tracing tract images, click that, and you can use them to make your own drawings and really enlarge your insert. I want to click the third one. Because that one is coming back in the summary of pathways we're going to later. I close that. I go to the top again. And I want to go to additional neuroscience sites. This is really additional information. Some TED playlists. How you again to contribute to neuroscience when you have to map the neuron and there's a neuro to see these are wonderful interviews on neuroscience like for instance episode five on grid cells and navigation with [INAUDIBLE] and [INAUDIBLE] who won the Nobel Price for their research And that interview really gives you an insight in what neuro sign research is about. So if you're interested in that it might be very nice to watch that and learn some relevant brain blocks there. Okay, I want to go to leave the note virtual lap and I want to go to learning materials. There you have the brain section images again. And here you have another in general learning materials medical news that you another list of resources, but they are not linking to resource websites Content, or explaining content, but more a possibility to review your knowledge, so you can practice, and practice, and practice again. For instance, the last one is the practice problem from the text book. Professor White created the possibility for you to create an account there and use this. There are neuroscience book recommendations, and [INAUDIBLE] the summary of pathways. If I click that. This is a summary I made for myself in 2013. And I started to share with in 2014 and later years. And if we scroll down. We see a lot of images. These are copyright free so I can share them with you. And if we go to page three we see the dorsal column medial. You recognize the image because that's from the tracing tracks images that created for us. If I go to the top. You can see where it is in the 5th edition of the book, and the 6th edition will be added later of course. And if I click the blue link, below that, it takes me to the textbook on the neuroscience bookshelf. If I Type figure. Insert this book. It gives me one resource where I can look, and if I click that, you can see image figure 9.6, which is a better Representation of the main mechanosensory pathways that my drawing was. So you can use it for your own studies. You can't share it with others, it's protected by copyright. So you can only use it for yourself. You can direct others to it like I did, but you can't directly share the images. If I scroll down a little bit more, We go to page seven. And as you see the facial pathways from anna to me Amsterdam. Well there a lot of more things in it and students find it really useful. So you can download it from my drive. There is also a summary on unit 3-4 and summary on unit 1-2. We go back to the top, we click the neurological Excel Which gives you information on neurological exam as you might have guessed but also the neurological cases. A wonderful site from the University of Utah that really gives you sort of method of learning the neurological exam and doing the neurological exam well. There are also the clinical neurology videos. They represent one of our member of our learning community in January 2016. Plus a resident at the neurology department in Madrid. And he presented to us in the discussion forum. It's wonderful. It's a site with 700 videos on neurological cases. To sell wonderful stocking material. There is a nice paragraph on dealing with neurological constraint. It's really inspiring to see people handle those constraints. If we go to Parkinson dances, that's really very nice. You see the pleasure people with Parkinson's disease can get From dance and it was really an eye opener for me to see how things like that were possible. The feature from unit four motor systems is also. There's also information on. She's a member of our learning community. She joined [INAUDIBLE]. January 2016. And she's a stroke survivor that suffers from locked in syndrome. She has her insides in writing for Huffington Post. I'll go to the top again. I click contact, And contact for students of Medical Neuroscience you can contact me through the Learn Medical Neuroscience subforum on the course website. You can ask me questions, point out things to me, or you could write a news article on general Neuroscience news. But I could copy and paste, with your name of course, in a news rubric of this website if you want to. There's a contact form for people that don't belong to the course. And now we go to the News page. On the page is featured the video news is also on the right side of the screen as is the second menu. We go to News page And here you get the hang out teaching award for Professor White, that's but something that is a lot of pleasure that he got this award. And there is at the bottom the British from the second get neuro context. You had to make an image of something in your daily life or in nature that resembles neuro electrical structure. And we have the tree roots, the mandarin, and the cauliflower. The next one is important, the practice of neurology called exam on a virtual patient. Duke is working on an application with a virtual patient called Carl. And you can practice it for yourself. But also Duke can learn from your experiences. So fill in the entrance survey and the exit survey when you are finished with doing three runs of examination. Duke can really learn from your experiences and it's a way to give something in return to the university. If I go to the next page, we get the winners of the first GetNeuro challenge then you had to give an image of yourself like [INAUDIBLE] medical neuroscience. And here we see writing and studying neuroscience while waiting for her freight train to be loaded. From down under. And burning the midnight oil at 3 AM watching Professor White studying neuroscience. So that's really very, very nice. At the right hand side of this page, you also see the second menu of this website. That's about study strategy and old study tips. I want to click Study Strategy. And there is sort of a road map for your study of medical neuroscience. You can see that visualize your knowledge is very important and you can find it there. I want to take you to the general study tips. The first study to is practice, practice, practice. With exams they are not only there to acquire grades, they're great practice material, so do them multiple times. That's very useful. If we scroll down, we see a wonderful, useful tip by Nicole Foster on taking notes. There's more information though, go and have a look. The study tips neural anatomy The unit study tips do have a figure that I think is useful for learning that unit and there's a kind of bonus they're copyright free so I can share them with you. There's also most of them are also in the summary of pathways. Well, there are also study tips for the final exam and I'll give you some more. It tell you to go back to certain parts in the course that are relevant and all that. So this concludes my short tour of the website, learn medical news site I hope you enjoyed the tour. I hope you will enjoy the course. And I look forward to meeting you on the discussion forum, goodbye. >> Thank you, Ellen, for everything you've done to support medical neuroscience over the years and thank you for creating this fabulous new, >> Repository of information and resources of all sorts that I know are students will greatly benefit from as they pursue their studies of medical neuroscience. In addition to the content that I prepared for you on our course website, there will also be recommended readings from a textbook. >> That textbook is Neuroscience, available now in a fifth edition from the publishers Sinauer Associates Incorporated. Now I need to let you know that my name is on the cover of this book so I have a bit of a conflict of interest in pushing this book too strongly on you, but I do want to commend it to you. Obviously I'm involved with the project. I've helped to create a fair bit of content for this text. It's a project that I believe in, and I believe in generally in the value of textbooks. I have here the French edition of this book. I'll just let you know that this book is available from various distributors in multiple languages. So if your best language is not English, you may look into see what translation of this book might be available to you where you are. So I consider this to be a wonderful option for those of you who prefer to have a book in your hands, not just a screen in front of you. But I would also say that it is entirely possible that you will be completely satisfied and fulfilled in your studies of medical neuroscience even without acquiring a copy of the book and pursuing the readings. But I want to give you as many options as possible to be successful. Including knowing that there is an attempt to organize this course around the structure of this book, so that you can count on the book to provide a valuable resource for you. That will explain those concepts with greater clarity then perhaps I have in my video lessons with you. There's another book that I would strongly commend to you. It's Neuroanatomy Through Clinical Cases by Dr Hal Blumenfeld. This book is also published by Sinauer Associates. Now I'm not assigning readings from this book because in many ways, this book is actually a bit beyond the scope of medical neuroscience. But it's a fabulous resource, for any of you that may be pursuing the neurological specialties. The approach that this book takes, is to lay out some foundational neuro anatomy. And then to challenge your understanding through a series of clinical case studies. It's very much the method that we use here in this course, medical neuroscience. It's just that the content of this book goes beyond an introductory level. Which would be consistent with what most medical students would learn in their first year of medical education. That's what we strive to achieve in medical neuroscience. This book would serve those students well. But also more advanced learners that are progressing deeper into their medical studies. Another resource that we will use in medical neuroscience is an online atlas of the central nervous system. Again, a disclaimer. My name is on this product. This is called Sylvius4 Online, An Interactive Atlas and Visual Glossary of Human Neuroanatomy, also published by Sinauer Associates. My partner in this project, Mark Williams and I, have created this atlas, and it is web served. If you choose to purchase our textbook of neuroscience. Then a subscription to this atlas comes with that textbook. Otherwise you could choose to acquire this atlas as a standalone subscription directly from the publisher's website. So you can find that online, and acquire that if you choose to. Again, it's not essential for success in Medical Neuroscience, but I would recommend this atlas. If any of you may be interested in acquiring an atlas, there's lots of free, interactive atlases available on the internet. Sylvius has the advantage of being the most detailed atlas concerning the internal anatomy of the brain stem. Really the only atlas of its kind that delivers content in that area, which will become important in units three and four of this course.