Welcome, thanks for joining me again today. Are we having fun yet? In this lecture, we will begin our exploration of medical terminology as it relates to the blood and lymphatic systems. The blood and lymphatic systems are a transportation system designed to bring oxygen and nutrients to tissues, remove wastes, repair injuries, and fight infection. Together, they are quite the dynamic duo, like peanut butter and jelly, and lions and kids. Just kidding. Don't let your kids play with lions. Even their blood and lymphatic system dynamic duo can't fix that injury. Let's begin by looking at the blood. We will review basic anatomy as well as new word roots. Erythr/o means red and erythrocytes are your red blood cells. They contain the protein hemoglobin that carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues in the bloodstream. Fun fact. Erythrocytes are anucleate, meaning they don't have a nucleus. Once the cells mature, they hit the eject button and expel that pesky nucleus to become big bags of floating hemoglobin, like that red annoying passenger eject button in your car. Your car doesn't have one of those? Mine neither. Leuk/o means white, and leukocytes are your white blood cells. They serve as a part of your immune system working to protect you from foreign invaders and pathogens. Specific types of leukocytes include lymphocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils, and basophils. An elevated leukocyte count can indicate the presence of an infection as your body multiplies and mobilizes your defense system. Leukocytes are like your own army against disease. Take that, fast food that was dropped on the floor before it was delivered through the drive-through window. The root thromb/o means to clot, and thrombocytes are your clotting cells or platelets. When a blood vessel is injured, the jagged-edge platelets stick to the wound and help form a clot to prevent massive blood loss or hemorrhage. Now for some new word roots, we will start with one related to thrombocytes or platelets. The first root is coagul/o, which means coagulation. Coagulation is when a liquid like blood turns into a gel or semi-solid and can form clots. You can see it in words like anticoagulant, which is a blood thinner. Our next few new roots refer to more general blood-related terms, including the most basic, hem/o or hemat/o, which both mean blood. You can see them in words like hemophilia, which is a blood disorder, and hematology, which is the study of blood physiology. Fun. Even more general, the word root cyt/o simply means the cell, but not this cell. This cell! Cyt/o means cell. Finally, phleb/o and ven/o both refer to the blood vessels known as veins. You can see them in words like venipuncture, which is a puncture of a vein to draw blood, and phlebotomist, which is a person who takes blood for a living, whereas they are also affectionately known as vampires. Now for a brain break. For the second half of this lecture, let's look at the lymphatic system in more detail. Much like a wet, dry vacuum can remove extra liquid from carpet and spills, the lymphatic system serves to pick up extra fluid, which has leaked out of the blood vessels and into the tissues, and then transports this fluid back toward the main veins and the heart. The other function of the lymphatic system pertains to its role in immunity. There are leukocytes and antibodies in lymphatic fluid and lymph nodes act as filters throughout the body to help strain out foreign pathogens and invaders. That's why they swell when you're ill because they become clogged with pathogens. I like to think of them as a colander, straining out all the things trying to make me sick, but not cucumbers like we see here. Cucumbers are good for you. Now for new word roots. Lymph/o means lymph. Lymph is a colorless fluid, which bathes tissues and moves through the lymphatic system back into the bloodstream. You can hear it in the name of the lymphatic system itself. Myel/o means bone marrow. Bone marrow is in this discussion because it's where erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets are made. Perhaps this is why broth made from beef bones and roasted bone marrow like that picture here is a home remedy for anemia or a low red blood cell count. The word root tonsill/o means tonsil. Your tonsils are lymphoid tissue and part of the immune system. The palatine tonsils are probably the most well-known tonsils and are located at the back of your throat. They are the first line of defense against bacteria and pathogens that enter the body through the mouth. Say "ah". Splen/o means spleen. The spleen makes lymphocytes, filters the blood, stores blood cells, and destroys worn out red blood cells. It is the largest organ in the lymphatic system and can become life-threatening if ruptured as blood pours into your abdominal cavity. How does one rupture a spleen? Car crashes. Always wear your seat belt low and across your lap, and drive carefully, people. Never text and drive. Look at me, slip in life advice into medical terminology. You're welcome. Our next word root is immun/o, meaning immune system. It refers to our body's natural defenses against disease. Looks like this person had immune system failure. That happens. To close, here are a few other roots and suffixes related to the blood and lymphatic systems. Thym/o means thymus gland, -emia means blood, and -penia is a deficiency. As with all good things, this lecture too must come to an end. Thanks for exploring introductory terms and roots related to the blood and lymphatic systems with me. See you next time.