Welcome, I hope you are as happy to be here as I am. In this lecture we will begin our exploration of medical terminology as it relates to the endocrine system. Let's get started. The endocrine system balances functions of the body. Endocrine organs secrete chemicals known as hormones into the bloodstream to travel to other organs or cells to cause them to change what they are doing. Fun fact, most of the hormones made in the body are similar in both humans and other mammals. That's why insulin from cows and pigs also works in humans. Because there are many glands in the endocrine system, We will look at the purpose, anatomy, and roots for them together for this lecture. But first, let's look at this adorable calf, since we just learned they can share their insulin with us. [Aww] The overall function of the endocrine system is to maintain homeostasis. In other words, it helps keep your body in balance. It can do this by using hormones to adjust nutrient levels, respond to the environment, and even direct growth and development. Fascinating! Endocrine system organs function by sending and receiving signals to and from other organs through the bloodstream. Target organs can then change their behavior to maintain homeostasis. For example, we can revisit insulin. Insulin helps regulate blood sugar. When there is a lot of sugar in your blood, it stimulates the pancreas to release insulin to lower your blood sugar and keep it within an acceptable range. Before we look at the anatomy and specific glands in the endocrine system, I thought it might be helpful to outline the general flow of information or hormones. The root hormon/o means hormone. Generally the hypothalamus sends hormones to the pituitary gland, which then sends hormones to other endocrine glands like the thyroid or adrenal glands. It's kind of like the telephone game you might have played when you were a kid, where one person whispered something to the next and on down the line. But hopefully with a little more consistencies, [children giggling] The hypothalamus is key in the endocrine system. Thus it is also key in maintaining homeostasis. Specifically it controls your body temperature. The hypothalamus is also responsible for other drives like thirst and hunger. It is also involved in sleep patterns and emotions. I like to think of the hypothalamus as your body's thermostat. The pituitary gland is actually two fused Glands. The anterior pituitary, which makes its own hormones, and the posterior pituitary, which stores hormones made in the hypothalamus. The roots, pituitar/o and hypophys/o, both mean pituitary gland. Example interior pituitary hormones include adrenocorticotropic hormone, or ACTH, and thyroid stimulating hormone, or TSH. These hormones then incite changes in the adrenal gland and thyroid gland, respectively. The pituitary gland is often called the master gland because it controls so many other endocrine glands. I like to think of it as a puppeteer, pulling all the strings of its little puppets. Dance, little glands, dance. And now, for a brain break. [MUSIC] One endocrine gland under the control of the master puppeteer is the thyroid gland. The roots thyr/o and thyroid/o both mean thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is responsible for the body's metabolism and metabolic rate. Perhaps you've heard someone say that they have a high metabolism or, more likely, a slow metabolism. If it is clinically too high or too low, this is referring to hyper- and hypothyroidism, respectively. Signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism or over secretion of thyroid hormones include things like weight loss, feeling warm or overheating easily, and excess energy which can come across as nervousness or feeling jittery. Signs and symptoms of under secretion of T3 and T4 include the opposite with weight gain, feeling chilled or cold all the time, and decreased energy which presents as fatigue or feeling tired. That couch and comfy blanket look too inviting. Another endocrine gland is the pancreas. Pancreat/o is the root for pancreas. The pancreas is primarily known for its role in regulating blood sugar through the hormones, insulin and glucagon. Insulin lowers your blood sugar after a meal. And glucagon does the opposite and raises your blood sugar between meals. Balance! Aren't we amazing?! >> Wow. >> Finally, your adrenal glands sit on top of your kidneys like little party hats. The root adren/o means adrenal gland. They have two main parts, the inner medulla and the outer cortex. The inner medulla is responsible for releasing the hormone epinephrine, better known as adrenaline. This fight or flight hormone is useful for helping you survive life threatening situations like getting attacked by a shark. Aah! Or public speaking. [swallowing sound] The outer cortex of the adrenal glands manufacture several hormones called corticosteroids. Cortisol or the long term stress hormone is made here. It helps you survive prolonged periods of stress, like college or adulting. Here are a few extra roots related to the endocrine system. They include gluco/o, glucos/o, or glyc/o for sugar. Crin/o is another root for gland. Cortic/o refers to the outer surface or cortex, and ganad/o refers to the gonads or sex organs. Finally, these suffixes are also commonly used in endocrinology. -tropin is a suffix, indicating the hormone stimulates the release of another hormone. -emia refers to something in the blood, and -uria refers to something in the urine. As with all good things, this lecture, too, must come to an end. Thanks for exploring introductory terms and roots related to the endocrine system with me. See you next time.