After Muhammad Ali, there is a certain slowdown in the process of reform, which picks up again under Muhammad Ali's Grandson, Khedive Ismail. Khedive is a title he gave to himself in order to emphasize the independence of Egypt from the Ottoman Empire, the Khedive being a title,uh, of ruler that suggested that he was much more than just a governor under the Ottomans but the autonomous ruler of Egypt. Khedive Ismail who ruled from 1863 to 1879, is described by the historian P.J. Vatikiotis as the impatient Europeanizer. Indeed he was. Khedive Ismail was one who saw Egypt as part of Europe. And really he was an impatient Europeanizer. He provided the means for the great advancement of the country and the emergence of a Westernized intellectual elite in government, education, and letters. Unfortunately, however, he also bankrupted the country because of his impatient Europeanizing, leading eventually to British occupation. But there were very important developments during Khedive Ismail's time. Perhaps, chief of these, and of lasting influence, the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. Ismail was lavish and at times, reckless in his expenses. Bringing to Egypt great economic stress. In 1875, Britain bought the Khedive shares in the Suez Canal and became the major shareholder in this key artery to India, a factor which played very importantly in the development of Britain's imperial role in Egypt and in the Middle East as a whole. Great advances were made during Ismail's time. In agriculture, especially in cotton for export expanding the cotton industry and the sugar industry as well. The construction of canals, bridges, telegraph, railway lines, and the modernization of Egyptian cities. The immigration of Europeans in great numbers who were needed for their expertise is also a factor of great importance during Khedive Ismail's rule. From a few thousand Europeans in Egypt in 1860, there were more than 100,000 in 1876. Many Egyptians were in daily contact with Europeans in business, in European modeled schools. Khedive Ismail found that specialized schools, for lawyers, administrators and even religious Sheikhs. For engineers, technicians, linguists, teachers, and craftsmen. He was the first ruler in Egypt to bring education to girls. Ismail encouraged Western habits, Western dress, and a Western lifestyle in general. This was all a huge step forward towards the creation of modern Egypt. But at the same time, there were mounting troubles. Financial bankruptcy first and foremost and increasing foreign control of Egyptian finances as a result of that. There was mounting disaffection of the fledgling nationalist movement in Egypt against this increasing foreign control, and this all eventually led to the invasion of Egypt by Britain in 1882 to ensure, initially, the repayment of the debt. And the British stayed for 70 years. From the very beginning of Muhammad Ali's rule, at the beginning of the 19th century, Egypt was set on a different path from the rest of the Ottoman Empire. Egypt was becoming a separate, independent, political entity. And this only increased after the British invasion in 1882 and the development rather rapidly of an Egyptian nationalist movement. Well before the development of an Arab nationalist movement.