Hi, welcome back. Make yourselves comfortable. Last time we talked about some of the new innovations that we lumped together under the label the Industrial Revolution. What we did then is instead of saying there is an Industrial Revolution in which there are just a bunch of inventions. We looked back then at the situation a number of individuals found themselves in. They looked at certain kinds of problems, puzzles, that they were trying to figure out. Puzzles about how to perfect steam engines to pump water out of coal mines. Situate how to develop clever machines that might help them pull apart cotton fiber and so on. We found that they were enabled by some particular features of their landscape. Enabled by things like Universities or Royal Institutions or the spread of papers among a scientific community that could then learn from each other and learn from each other's experiments. So you have a situation. You have a number of people who are solving problems that arise out of that situation, enabled by particular features of their world. Having solved those problems, new powers are found. New forces are set in motion. What I wanna talk about today is, then, that creates a new situation in which you have these powers in these different countries. And then they begin to realize with all of this, look at what we can do. Let's look at the new situation that's been created by the existence of these new capabilities. I wanna start with the Market Revolution. And the Market Revolution flows a lot out of what we talked about last time as the Transport Revolution. But just think about the market in the simplest terms. Let's say I wanna make something, I wanna make clothes. Well then to make my clothes I need a supply of raw materials. So I need a supply of cotton and then I need to bring that cotton to my mills, which let's say are in England. And then I need to get my finished clothes back out to markets. Clothes and other sorts of textiles. The cotton, let's say, is being grown in the Southern United States, principally by slave labor. The cause of the transport revolution, you can bring cotton from fields that are will inland by railroad. To ports that can now bring you the cotton much faster, and in much larger quantities, because you've got steam ships. Steam ships that aren't as subject to the vagaries of wind, and that an haul much heavier loads. Once I get that cotton to the mills, because of railroads, I can bring it to the mills at a further distant from the port. I can set up factories in a number of different places. I can bring some of the raw materials, including the people I need for those factories, by rail. I can then ship my textiles out to ports where the steam ships can carry them more. So I've got my supply and my supplies, and my production. And my production of course vastly enhanced by these new machines that I'm able to build. Thanks to things like steam engines, and then even the machine tools developed, powered by steam engines. So because of all these phenomena I have a revolution in my ability both to produce goods and to get those goods to markets. So let's just take an example of how this plays out. Here is India. In the traditional world, India had been one of the major producer of textiles. It had some weavers that produces some cotton. British factories can produce textiles now at a fraction of the cost that India used to be able to produce then. So, instead of India being the principal producer of finished textiles to the world on a very small scale of trade. India becomes a principal importer of finished textiles prepared cheaply in British factories. It becomes a market for those textiles and in turn Indian agricultural land and Indian laborers turn to the job of producing raw materials which will go out to the British factories. Let's zoom in on an illustration of this. As we zoom in on Southern India, let's suppose now I have cotton that's being grown over here. That cotton can now be transported over land by brand new railroads that are being built. First to Bangalore and then from Bangalore out to the port of Madras, where steamships will take that cotton to England. India is also becoming an important producer of wheat. The wheat is not only being shipped overseas. But now this wheat can be shipped actually to a vast internal market inside India that can be reached with the expanding network of railways being built principally by British finance, and of course, Indian labor. And another thing that happens with the transport revolution is much freer movement of labor to get to where people need workers. Finance also vastly expands to help fund the construction of railroads, for example. Also to set up insurance against all the risks involved in these different investments and new ventures. Public improvements are a huge feature of this age. As you're building up entirely new systems, railways, steam ships. Somebody needs to come up with the money to help support the construction of railroads, railway bridges, new ports and harbors. This is a vast expense mainly funded by governments, supplemented by private finance. Often governments buying bonds that would be picked up by private lenders, in other words, private lenders lending money to the government as the government floats these bonds. And the government then would either build these new features themselves or hire private enterprise to do it. As you create cities of people who are serving these new factories, the cities need all kinds of new infrastructure. So the construction of public facilities of many kinds is a feature of the 1800s. The new situation also caries with it tremendous changes to culture. One example of that would just be since everybody is wearing clothes that are increasingly being manufactured in Britain, clothing styles tend to become standardized. Where people had to make local homespun garments. They can now buy industrially made clothes coming from British factories, mimicking the fashions say being promulgated in British magazines. You begin to see standardized fashions spreading all over the world. Another facet of the new situation is that these scientific breakthroughs give people a tremendous sense of confidence and excitement that at last God's laws are being revealed. This contributes to a huge, especially European, North American sense of confidence that, gosh, I can solve any kind of problem you can come up with, if I can just apply enough of these new scientific techniques to it. It also provides a sense of broad confidence to the society that we know how to do things that people have never known how to before. It contributes to a sense of missionary zeal, to spread the new gospel of progress and improvement, which also carries over into the religious realm as well. Missionary zeal is an aspect of this mid 19th century age. One illustration of this is the tremendous proliferation of missionaries going out to the less developed parts of the world in order to preach the gospel. Often religious gospel but often the religious gospel is accompanied by the gospel of other sorts of improvements. Education, provision of healthcare, things like that. One of the most important missionary groups is The London Missionary Society. This is actually an illustration imprinted on a piece of glass that could then be viewed through the light of a lantern. Of one of the great figures of The London Missionary Society, David Livingston preaching the gospel to people in East Africa. As commerce grows there's a burgeoning middle class, led of course in places like Britain. And no one was picking up the spirit of this new middle class and indeed writing for it than the British author Charles Dickens. Here's an example of one of Dickenson's novels, and its first edition, David Copperfield. Very much a story of a young lad who rises from difficult circumstances, in an environment of people struggling to be part of a new middle class. And that middle class was exemplified for many Englishmen by the reassuring figure of their queen, Queen Victoria. Here's an illustration of the queen at the height of her power. Queen Victoria reigned from 1837. To 1901. So you can see how she became sort of a stand-in for the whole era, a Victorian era. That stood for solid, middle class values, stability, order, the family. European culture is also increasingly becoming the world's culture. So an example of European high culture in the 1800s was the opera and other forms of theater. So here we go to a town in the North of Brazil, Manaus. And you see in Manaus, Brazil, they built an opera house. It looks like it might have been transplanted from London or Vienna. But no, this is in Brazil. You also get a sense of the spread of these new values through the rise of consumer goods and the desire to popularize an image of the proper way people should live. And here's an ad for Pears' Soap. This is a new kind of consumer good. It's being marketed above all to middle class matrons. You see the well-dressed mother, not a member of the British aristocracy, but clearly an affluent person, who's properly taking care of her child, aided by Pears Soap. With probably a supportive servant looking on the background. This era, the middle part of the 1800s, also sees the rise of a distinctive working class. There had been a working class before, sure. But as millions of people are crowding into the cities where the factories are located, leaving the farm, they become a new class of Factory Workers. With a distinctive identity around the kind of work they're doing, the kind of challenges they face living in desperate circumstances in crude factories with lots of safety and health issues. Another facet of the 1840s and 1850s Are intensified debates over slavery. Slavery seems, on the one hand, like a relic of the Bygone Era in which now you're celebrating the rise of free labor, products, middle class. And slavery, and indeed slaves themselves, seem to be the kind of people who would compete with working class laborers. Taking away their jobs because they could be owned by the upper class. Slavery offends the missionary zeal of religious beliefs, and, indeed, the most radical abolitionists in both Britain and the United States are coming out of the churches, the Protestant Churches. But on the other hand all those British factories and the English midlands are relying on cotton. And mainly that's cotton grown in America. And mainly it's being grown in these slave states. More than two thirds of the worlds cottons supply the textiles that Britain is producing is coming from this region you see here. The areas that are striped in pink or all in pink are areas where the majority of the population were slaves. The area in green is the area of cotton production. Another aspect of this new situation is that millions of people are on the move. I've already talked about the way they're on the move between countries now filling in different kinds of labor needs all over the world and seeking new opportunities. Increasingly as land is being enclosed and what used to be communal grazing lands or communal farm areas are being turned into extremely well-defined plots of private property, where crops are being grown for far away markets. Subsistence farmers are being turned out of their land, finding that there are better opportunities elsewhere. Let's study these huge population movements that are going on. The most important movement of population in the 1800s is coming out of Europe where the population is growing very fast because the material well-being of people is getting better and better. But Europe is having difficulty supporting all these people and they see lots of better opportunities elsewhere. Look at these migrations. More than 30 million people. And you see this covers it seems a long period of time. But the large majority of that 32 million is actually going to North America during the 1800s. There are millions more going to different parts of South America, including Argentina. The African population has mostly already migrated to North America in these parts of the world. Most of these Africans brought over as slaves earlier have died. Some black populations remain in South America in the West Indies. African-Americans have found a secure foothold, but as slaves in North America where by the 1860s they're about 4 million African Americans. Still again, the major population move here are Europeans. Probably the most important sources here of the European migrants Are people coming from Britain and Ireland in the early part of the century. And then above all, from Germany during the middle part of the century. There are places in America that become some of the largest German speaking communities in the entire world. Later in the century there'll be increasing numbers of people migrating from Southern Europe places like Italy, and also from eastern Europe. Within the Russian empire, there are significant movements to the new lands that the Russian empire is opening up in the east. The other great migration is actually coming out of China. Some of that is simply populating places where there are new mercantile opportunities all over Southeast Asia. And to this day, Chinese expatriates are now important minorities in all the major communities of Southeast Asia. There are also significant migrations from East Asia to North America. Millions of Indian laborers are migrating to serve in different parts of the British Empire. In East Africa, in South Africa and even to the West Indies where you can find important populations of people descended from these Indian laborers today. A really good illustration of how all these different changes come together can be found here in Australia. So the situation in Australia in 1830 is, a handful of people have settled there. In 1830, all the settlement in Australia is here and here. In the period we're looking at now, between about 1830 and 1875, look at how that settlement expands. All between 1830 and 75, and you see these lines? These are railway lines. The railway lines that enable people to settle inland. Why can they settle inland? Because they can raise sheep and cattle that are then turned into food sent back to hungry England, which is no longer self sufficient in food and relies on imported food from places just like Australia. And of course as I mentioned earlier people are also moving on a huge scale within these countries. For example from rural areas to the cities where they can find jobs. So you get these nightmarish scenes in the 1850s and 1860s of these newly packed in cities with the smoke from the new factories darkening the skies. We'll talk a little in some later presentations about how all that translates into political beliefs. But that's enough for now, see you later.