And the key to the Civil War is understanding that, the problems of war finance. Okay. What's the problem of war finance? The government is fighting a foe and it needs to mobilize as many resources as it can in order to win the war. Okay. In this case the North was fighting the South. It was a Civil War, okay? But the finance problems are the same, okay? You got to mobilize resources, okay, so what the governments do? Okay. They tax, they raise taxes as much as they can, raise as much money in taxes they other resources they actually have conscription. They say you have to give me your labor okay, for free. You know, you're, you're a soldier and, and fight, and fighting the war. so, they, they sort of require people to give them money and labor. Okay, governments do that. Then they ask for some, some volunteers. They say, how 'bout we sell you some bonds? Okay. And, so let's start with that. Okay. because, and, and that's the next. So, so let's say bond sales. How do bond sales work? Okay. So here we have the government. Okay, here we have the private sector [NOISE] and here we have the banking system. [NOISE] When the government sells bonds ,what is it trying to? It's trying to say issue some bonds. [NOISE] As a liability, okay. And sell them, receiving in return deposit accounts. I'm saying deposits comma g, that is to the credit of, that it can then spend on war goods Okay. That's what it means to sell bonds. It means that you get deposit accounts here. So it's, it's selling these bonds to the private sector, which is paying with its own deposit accounts. And I'm saying private sector because that's its deposits, and it's acquiring these bonds. Okay. So it's trading. You can have my deposit accounts, I'll take your bonds. Okay, and the banking system, all that's happening is you have a debit to the deposit account of the private sector and a credit to the deposit account of the government. So you're just tran, in the, within the, within the banking system there's just a transfer of ownership of a deposit account. Okay. This is all easy peasy, but, we start easy and then it gets more convoluted. Okay. Notice that the total quantity of deposits in the banking system doesn't change. You're just changing the ownership of some deposits. Then the government spends these and in doing so it's buying more goods from the private sector so it's transferring these deposits back to the private sector, okay, and using them to buy. Okay. Then instead of trying to sell them to the private sector, it might, sell them directly to the banking system, okay, or by taking out a loan from the banking system. Like this. So, lets say, this is version one, this is version two, okay, plus deposits, plus bonds. Well, here we'll say a loan, instead. Okay? But a, a loan is, is sort of, like a, a, a bond. It's a, it's a promise to pay at some future date. but it's not a security. It's, it's not something that's salable in, in the open capital market. And it's just borrowing this directly from the banking system. [NOISE] And this is a swap of IOUs. Right? Why do I say that? The bank is saying. to the government I owe you let's put some actual numbers there 150 million dollars because this is exactly what Salmon P. Chase did. Okay. In August of 1861, August of 1861, he went to the big New York bankers and he said, please lend me some money. They said 150 million dollars. Does that about do it? Yep, that's fine. So he had this loan of 150 million dollars. So they created a deposit account for, for the government. For, for Mister Salmon P. Chase, saying, I owe you 150 million dollars. Okay? And the government wrote a little note. Here, saying, no, I owe you $150 million. Okay. The government owes, in ten years or five years I don't thing Young tells us the term of the loan, okay but this is a [INAUDIBLE] deposit, okay. This is, this is private money, okay? And it's been created from thin air if you see. It's an expansion of both sides of the balance sheet. Might call this quantitative easing. Okay. the gov, the banking system is buying the government bonds. It's buying the government bonds because the government is not so sure it can get the private sector to buy them. There's no involvement of the private sector here at all. Right. In this second, in this second maneuver, okay, it's all completely a relationship between the banking system. Okay. This is what Sam and P. Chase did and then he pulled a a bit of a fast one on the banking system okay, on these, on these New York bankers. Instead of taking taking these deposits and transferring them to Americans to buy war material, you know, boots and cloth and food for the soldiers and stuff, okay, he withdrew them. He said oh, these are my deposits you promised to pay me on demand. Okay, I demand. Give me 150 million, give me 150 million in gold, please. In gold, please. I haven't put this in the banking system, but there's, there are gold reserves, okay, that are being held by the banking system, and so the New York banks had to do that, and they did do that. Okay? Minus gold. [SOUND] Minus deposits. Okay? Minus deposits plus gold. A 150 million dollars worth. Okay. Now why did Salmon P. Chase did that? Okay. They're not interested in dollars. They're interested in gold. And so he wanted to, at the very beginning of the war, make sure that all the gold in the United States was in his pocket, okay, so that he could, could, he could buy whatever he wanted from England and this was turned out to be rather key, actually, to the success of the war. The South had to always do barter deals, actually, with, with, in, in, in terms of, with cotton, with ship cotton and get war material from Europe. Okay. Whereas the North could pay in, in gold. So, this was a key, a key thing. Okay, however, one consequence of this was to suck all of the gold reserves out of the banking system. And therefore, make them illiquid. Make them unable to pay on any other deposits in gold. Okay, they, and so, they immediately suspended, suspended their specie payments. They refused. To pay deposit accounts in gold anymore. The government took all the gold. They didn't have any more gold. So the US went off the gold standard. Right there. Right at that moment. Because Mister Salmon P. Chase sucked all the gold into his own, into his own pockets.