Okay. in 1863. So all while this, this, these little tender things are going on. In 1863. The, Salmon P Chase tries something else. [SOUND] He goes back. I don't really know what the story is. It would be interesting to go back and find out. Why did he give up on this legal tenders? Maybe there was too much push back or whatever but, so he tries to go for the bonds again. He tries to go for the, for the bonds again. This time what he does is he says to the banking system, I would like to sell you some of these bonds that really have very little, very low rate of interest on them, 2%. I would like you to pay full price for them so that I'm paying 2% interest and, and that means giving me deposits for them. That's what I would like you to do. Okay? So the government goes to the banking system and says, this is what I would like. I would like to be issuing these special 2% bonds and I would like to get deposit accounts for them. Okay. Not going to withdraw these things for gold, because I know you don't have any gold anymore. and what you would give me is, is, is legal tenders. but this is what I would like, like you to do. Why would the banking system agree to that? Okay? To sweeten the pot, he said to the banking system and I'm going to let you issue banknotes. Banknote currency, using these bonds as collateral. Using these bonds as collateral. Issue banknote currency, using these bonds as collateral. I know, these are all kind of new words. Okay. So, let's just play out, let me just play out what actually happened. What happened is that the government uses these, and so anyway, the banking system said yes. Okay. And the government uses these deposit accounts to buy war goods from the private sector. Okay. Again, let's put a g next to these things so that we know that these are, okay. So this is minus war goods from the private sector plus deposit accounts here. Plus deposits, private sector. Okay, so. Here is minus deposits of the government. And plus deposits of the private sector. Okay. So, the government is basically borrowing from the banking system, and it's borrowing-, and the banking system is creating new money by expanding its own balance sheet deposit accounts here. And the government is using those deposit accounts to pay for war goods. Not legal tenders, but promises to pay legal tenders. That's what these deposits are now, right, these are promises to pay legal tenders. Okay? But now, because he gave this nice, Because, because they gave this nice feature to the bonds, that you could use them as collateral for note issue. Anytime the private sector. Now the private sector has all these deposits. Maybe it wants some, wants to, to actually withdraw them. Okay, and when the private sector withdraws them, instead of paying in the banks own reserves, the legal tenders, the bank has the right to print notes. That's the point. So let's have, let's just suppose that the private sector withdraws all of the deposits. Plus banknotes. So these are new bank notes that are issued. Okay. So these bonds are thought of as the collateral that is backing these banknotes. Okay. Meaning to say that if this bank fails. Okay? These notes which are out in circulation. These aren't deposit accounts at the bank. Right? They're out floating around in circulation. that the, this bank is depositing these bonds at a central location. So that if you ever wanted to cash in your, your banknote, you don't have to go back to the bank, which may be bankrupt. You can take that bank note and you can, you can get a 2% government bond for it. Okay. That's the sense in which it's collateral. It's backing, it's backing the value of this note. Okay. So it's just as if, it's just as if the the government had borrowed from the banking system by allowing the banking system to write, to write, to create money, to just write its own notes. So these are, these are one step removed from legal tenders. These are promises to pay legal tender and they're private money, okay? And the key thing is that there was only a fixed number of these bonds. And at the end of the war, that became the money supply that you're seeing up there. Okay. Lawful money in the bank, that's where that money came from. Okay. That was, that was a, a and there's some gold there. And there's some gold there too, because there was resumption of the legal tenders and so forth, okay. But there's a fixed supply of, of base money in the country after 1863. A fixed supply of base money after, after 1863. It doesn't expand or contract with the business cycle very much.