[MUSIC] In the previous chapters, we have seen that the Mediterranean behaves like as ocean, a small ocean, and have a lot of properties that can be studied there and then be applied to the ocean. This is more true in terms that it's a model, a reduced model. Now here we are going to do the jump from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic and the exit door from the Mediterranean is the Strait of Gibraltar. And this is a very nice picture from the mid 19th century showing the Strait. And you can see here, this is the Gibraltar mountain. And these are the Jebel Musa, the mountain in the African coast. But it is really, very difficult to see this from, from a ship to see that between these two mountains there is a gap, flowing and opening to a vast ocean. As we are now, just as Barcelona World Race is finishing in a few days. We'll see, more or less, we can go to try to do the same track, so this is the tracking from Barcelona World Race the first states. And just to know that in the Mediterranean, a typical distance, for example this one, is about 300 miles, 300 miles. And we have now, this is exaggerating, the scale's exaggerating. It's an arbitrary number but it's exaggerating that's 1200 times or 100,000%. If we go next steps, so some days later, we'll open to the sea, to the Atlantic Sea. And you see this is a very big blue part here. And you see that the typical distance here it's not 300 miles, it's about 900 miles following the coast. But you can see that it's more widely open. So finally if we go back and we used six times the scale, we'll see these are the typical distances of the ocean, that is 6000 miles, it is more than, it's 20 times what was the initial distance we used, the Mediterranean. So, when we open to the ocean the distances are much more higher. But there are more things, there are more things that are different. So this is the Mediterranean, another important thing is the band of latitudes. That the Mediterranean is comprised in a very relatively narrow band of latitude between 38, 48 and 30 degrees north. So it’s the Northern hemisphere and even far from the tropical islands not far from the Polar areas the central part of in themperathe latitude. While the Atlantic is from the North Pole, if you look at this, it is open and you'll not see these because the images is built from the north, but the sea is spreading until 75 degrees south, which corresponds to the weather sea in the Antartica. So it's a very wide latitude and reason this, you have two hemisphere of all latitude almost of only one intelligent zone in one of the hemisphere. This has, the first thing we can see is that the cycle, a natural annual cycle, in March is cold,than spring is becoming more uniformly the temperature is growing. But more uniformly, in September its fully developed the situation of warm waters, especially in the southern-eastern part, but also here, don’t that water, which is coming from the Atlantic is colder, but this is another thing. And finally, we go back to the autumn see that it's becoming again, colder and it's starting to get more cold by the more continental part which is the Black Sea. But also in the northern of the Adriatic and go back to the other anual cycle. Well, this is the Atlantic, and the Atlantic you'll see, that this region is almost during all the year is hot. You'll see but perhaps moving from one side to the other, so it's in March here the temperature is in the equator, but also in the Southern part of the equator, while in September, is reversed. Because here is the summer in the Northern hemisphere, and here is the summer in the Southern hemisphere. You also see that here in the winter of the northern hemisphere this all this part is very cold. And now it's less cold. It's more difficult to see in the southern part because here it's more or less regular because of the some things like this one. We'll see that that shows that at the end of autumn and winter time, cold water arrives just to the La Plata estuary here in the coast of the South American coast. While in summer and in the spring or summer is less. So this is spreading in the two hemispheres. And this is also seen in the deep distribution. But in this distribution, the temperatures of the water at the bottom are near zero degrees because our flow from the Antarctic area flowing down because it's, and the central part the temperatures are very high and the salinities you can see that this land is here corresponds to the zone that is equally the same and here is the contribution of Mediterranean. This is an experiment that we'll see showing the mixture of different water masses from different conditions, with low and high densities, and is very clear to see that. Then, more things: the distribution of the water from the Mediterranean to Atlantic,exits Gibraltar and is spreading at about 1,000 meters depth, it's spreading, sorry, across the Atlantic. This is temperature. It's the temperature at this position it's mixing with local water, what you see the tongue of the weather and salinity is much more clear in this spreading here. This is the circulation of the central part of the Atlantic. At the surface water is intruding in this area. We can see here a little bit of this, let's go a little bit. And this is the TS diagram. You'll see the essentially. This is the northern Atlantic centre of the water, this is all these area, occupying all the water column down to about 1000 meters. This is the intrusion of the Mediterranean overflow water, from 800 to 1100 meters, more or less. That gives this higher salinity and also relativity higher temperature. And here, these are the transition zone with the Labrador sill water, which has a similar density, a little bit higher density but much lower temperature. And also much lower salinity, because it's water that it has an important influence from the ice covered in the Labrador sill. Here is the Gibraltar sill, is a section. You can see that this water is forced to go down while the lattice going up. And the also another picture of the distribution of the different, distribution of salinities from different crosses and also temperature. And this is a scheme, also the scheme I showed you. This is the central water, this is another look, and this is the North Atlantic deep water. And this is the Antarctic deep water, which is at the bottom is a very, very dense water from the Antarctic shelf across all the ocean. And the profile of salinity is very nice, because it's showing this maximum of salinity at about 1,000 meters, with respect to water vapor. And this is more or less the path of this water spreading towards the Portugal coast to the Bay of Biscay. And then the North Atlantic on the other is moving flowing to the south and to the west towards the Caribbean Sea. And I think that's more or less, that's all.