The second screen side chat question I want to address is another one that you posted on the forum, that I didn't post, since I'm trying to answer all your questions instead of mine this year. Partly as a response to your suggestions on these forums. The question I'm going to answer, though, as number two, is Vanessa Bright's, which she said, is strong organizational culture an obstacle to change? And she wrote the following. I just finished listening to a book, Corporate Culture, Getting It Right, and found one interesting point that is also relates to my personal experience. The book mentions that organizations with strong cultures do well during stable times, but do not function as well during times of change. She writes this was an interesting point, and it seems to explain some of my own observations. Strong culture probably contributes to a creation of organization-wide community of practice and falls in love with the local maximum, beyond which an organization is not willing to move. However, can an organization have a strong learning culture? Would it be a solution for stable periods in time of continuous change? And many of you upvoted this. You thought this was a great question. So, I think there's two ways to look at an organizational culture, even in organizational learning. And one of them is kind of as an outcome, an output, what you measure, right, as an indicator of learning. The other is as a process, right? So, a product process kind of focus. One or the other. And all too often when we talk about culture, we focus on the valued outputs, right? We think about the goals to which this company strives, the mission. And when it's strong and coordinated and agreed upon, you do notice that the firms focus on improving that particular thing. And this kind of, it's actually implicit in a lot of organizational learning, it seems to me, that they presuppose everybody's on the same page, they've bought in, they're all gung-ho towards the same ends in some regard. And they're focused on improvement, so it does have a feel at times of a very strong organizational culture. There's no doubt about that. And particularly in terms of everybody buying in to the particular core technology and how everybody's behind it and trying to improve it. Now, a lot of you debated whether a strong culture was good or not, and there was various views. And Vanessa did a good job of relating them. I think her articulation that maybe a strong learning culture is distinct, because it's a particular kind of organizational culture, and it may not necessarily have to do with the actual output or the outcome, the ins of this organization. It has to do with the actual practice, or the practice itself as an end. And by that, I'm meaning a strong learning culture, and Brandon mentions this, too, is focused on a process. So that if, it's not that we all have to agree, but that we have to buy into the mode of debate and reflection and the practice of learning as a collective, as an organization. And I think that is more consistent with the idea of a firm fitting a stable or a dynamic environment and be able to adapt. So I think that is kind of a solution in many regards. The thing that I often wondered, though, is that, and I feel like it enriches this understanding, is that the implication of learning curves is that you always plateau. You improve on one dimension of the firm, and there are incremental gains thereafter that aren't as big because you quickly learn, and you run out of ways to improve. It's kind of like health care. We've had huge gains in terms of longevity for many years, and now it's declining. The longevity of humans is not improving dramatically anymore as it was maybe a hundred years ago. So, that's evidence for a lot of firms, though, that that kind of improvement occurs. So they shift the actual measurements or the actual outcomes that they're focused on. So it does suggest maybe that a lot of firms, if you are a learning organization, that you won't always focus on the same thing, that you will eventually try to institutionalize what you've learned. You will try to remember what worked well, and the failures, and understand them. And then move on to something else that you could have a greater return on learning from. And that suggests more of a differentiated organizational culture in terms of outcomes than one that's, or at least on terms of ends, than one that's highly group-think oriented. And I do think it's true that you will reach, if you have group-think and you do have this cohesive organizational culture, that you may not always be open to the networks of practice Beyond your firm or at least be receptive to alternatives. And there are dangers on that. On the other hand, group-think can be, or and a strong organizational culture, can be terrific in certain kinds of context. So I don't want you to think there is one culture for every condition. In fact, I think next week what we'll spend a lot time on is talking about how organizational cultures vary dramatically from ones that are highly integrated to some that are differentiated, if not, you have a very bifurcated organizational cultures, or divisions within firms that are quite dramatically different. To one that's an ambiguous organizational culture that's great, like someone mentioned, in terms of dynamic contacts or for exploration. Research and development, that kind of culture might be helpful in terms of creativity. But it's not created for exploitation, right? So with exploration, exploitation. Different kinds of culture may be facilitating those different ends and goals. But I do think there's a difference between those kinds of structures of culture and a learning culture, which I feel like is really much more about a process of trying to improve and adapt and using both communities of practice and networks of practice. Avoiding learning traps. Institutionalizing practices by which people improve what they're doing, and reflect on what goes wrong and what goes right and try to create some kind of memory of those things. So that they're intelligent. It's an intelligent organization, a self-aware organization of its actual activities. I think that's a particular kind of culture that could be fragmented, could be integrated. It could be ambiguous, but on that dimension of the practice, the process of that firm, I think there is a great deal of consistency if you're a learning organization. So I think that's a great comment, Vanessa, thank you. And thank you for a great thread and discussion.