Hello everybody, and welcome back. Now we know that [inaudible] since the end of the Bronze Age was occupied by a network of small settlements, villages scattered all along the river valley, the coastal plain, and the inner part along the slope of the Apennines. According to the memory of the ancients, we can envisage a network, a groups of men that were called Popoli in Latin. They were 30 and they created a federation centered on a sanctuary placed here on the limit of this lake. The settlement closest to the sacred area was the most important of this network. This is why this Popoli were called Albenses and not Latini yet. By this time, the River Tiber is the border of this new system. But the site of Rome, very far from the core of the region looks a little bit different from any other place all around. There was a wade on the river. Here, three of these Popoli, three of these groups of men were living close together as you can see by this plan in different colors, and the Palatine is part of this populace. The Velienses were standing on the top of the Palatine Hill now. This is a wonderful place to have a clear view of the site of Rome. We see from the right bank of the river down there the Janiculum Hill and all the settlement area on the left bank with the Capitoline Hill right behind me. The other hills of Rome all around. The earliest settlement, the Bronze Age settlement in Rome, spread out from the Capitoline Hill down to the Forum Valley down there, and then slowly expanded up on the slope of the Palatine Hill. The settlement of Rome spread over the heights. These hills had different names, the Colles in that part of the settlement, the Quirinal and the Viminal and the Montis on that part of the settlement. The Palatine itself, the Caelian Hill, the Esquiline Hill, and the Velia. The ancient people thought they knew who were the first inhabitants of the site of Rome, and they were gods like Janus, a terrible being with a double face settled here on the right bank of the river. After him, saturnus, a god with the sickle related to agriculture who would have occupied this area including the Capitoline Hill. From an archaeological point of view, all we have is just fragments of pottery of the Bronze Age, like this one, or this one, or this one again. Just fragments more than this, we have graves like this one on this point on the slope of the Palatine, or this one on the slope of the Velian Hill, or another one here on the slope of the Capitoline once again. As you can see, these grave grounds are all around this valley. When we move to the Iron Age, the shapes of the vases change, but the settlements stay more or less the same in extension, but something has changed. It's no more possible to envisage three groups of men staying on the same place, but too small nonetheless unified settlements. The one occupying the area of the hills called the Montis, and another one occupying the hills called Colles. These two settlements are very close, but indeed separated we're surrounded by rural areas. They were called Pagi as you can see here in the map with a lighter hue. Let's have a closer look to what's going to happen in this gray ground here. At the end of the 10th century, with the beginning of the Iron Age, we have a high number of graves, incineration graves, burial graves, and children's graves. When we move deeper into the Iron Age as you can see here, we have a lesser number of graves and just children. Just children are buried here. What really happened is that the grave grounds shifted far away from the center of the system and moved here on the Esquiline Hill and here on the Quirinal Hill very far from the center. To make a very long story short, what we see on the basis of the archaeological evidence is that the settlement on the site of Rome seems to be at first limited to the southern area of the Capitoline Hill. Then in the second half, the second millennium BC, the settlement spread to the northern hill of the Capitoline and to the Palatine. It stays until the end of the Bronze Age. With the beginning of the Iron Age, things do not change. But around the middle of the 9th century, as you can see here, the grave grounds moved away from the center, so the settlement enlarged. A new unified settlement is now born. We know its name. It's Septimontium as you can see this large area here. Now, the Montis and Colles are parts of one settlement. For the first time, the settlement on the site of Rome is one. This is the area of this rural district around the main settlement. At this time, the settlement and the site of Rome was divided into 27 areas. There were called Curiae, it's a Latin word meaning the group of men. The Palatine is just a very peripheral part of the settlement articulated in four or five smaller areas. Now, let's have a closer look at the archaeological evidence we collected over this hill.