[MUSIC] Hello, everybody. And welcome back. Turning back, once again, to the Palatine. We notice that we have a new period of continuity, even if everything is changing from a political and an historical point of view. In the area of the sanctuary of Vesta, as we've already seen, there are no substantial changes. Just minor upgrading of the houses like this one here, with a double court now, and an altar later on at the end of the fifth century BC. And also here in the former king's house, which now belongs to the pontifex maximus, the structure of the house seems to stay the same. With an entrance from the sacred way, possibly an atrium in the center, and the underground passage still leading from the house to the sanctuary of Vesta. Major information can be revealed by the sacred areas at the opposite corners of the hill. First of all, this one the so called Curiae Veteres, this was a very ancient sanctuary created by Romulus himself to force the districts of the Palatine to celebrate the rites in one central place. It was a way of imposing the central power at the moment of the birth of the new city. From an archaeological point of view, very important excavations have revealed a sanctuary in this corner of the Palatine. We can imagine a plot, occupied possibly by a temple with an area for the gathering of the curiae, surrounded by residential plots like this one here and this one here. Unfortunately, we have just scanty fragments of this cult place, such as this antefixes here, possibly decorating temple. And this votive offering, like this one wonderfully painted with this young male head here. On the opposite side of the hill, near the place where Rome had been founded, in the sanctuary we have a smaller upgrading of some structures we don't see any more. These systems here are filled up with fragments of an earlier building, possibly a temple, such as this fragment here. This is an antefix with this head of a woman with horns and a goat over her head. This is a very famous goddess. This is Iuno Sospita. She was the savior of the marriages and the armed guardian of the city. So this goddess was very important, and was placed here in a very important place of the Palatine, where the city itself had been founded, to guard over the whole city. Meanwhile, the place of the foundation is maintained in its use. Two eighth century huts are still there, and cult activities during the fifth century take place, such as a small vase placed inside this fossa. The general layout stays more or less at the same until the beginning of the third century BC. By this time, the smaller hut is cancelled within the larger hut. Two basis, possibly for altars or statues, we don't exactly know, are placed here. The graves, the fossae here in the altar are covered and a new area is enclosed here, along the Scalae Caci, the very old entrance to the Palatine. Right on top of the hill, in this place, a new temple is built, the temple of a new goddess Victoria. We have very scanty remains of this new temple, such as the stretches of wall here and these pillars here. And this is how we can imagine, once again, the original shape of this temple. Just a few fragments of the pediment sculptures survive of these wonderful places with the head, maybe of Jupiter, and maybe of Dionysus here. During the fifth and the fourth centuries, and the beginning of the third century, not so much evidence reveals to us what was going on on the Palatine. From an official point of view, if we consider all the public foundations of temples in Rome within the third century BC, just two of them are placed on the Palatine Hill. Once again, things are about to change very soon. During the second century BC, the Palatine will be the seat of the most luxurious houses of the masters of the New Empire. Thank you very much.