[MUSIC] Hello, my name is Stepan Vymetal. I'm from Prague, Czech Republic. I'm a psychologist. My specialization is crisis, disaster, and trauma psychology. I must speak about psychological first aid for people with hearing difficulties. There are a lot of people with hearing disabilities. These are sign language users, people reading lips, people using written messages. Or deaf people. Or people which some hearing. A large number of these are elderly people, with loss, or damage of hearing because of age. These groups of people can have a different cognitive, and social development, and specific communications needs. Not all people with hearing disabilities know sign language. There is no universal sign language system. Every country has its own sign language. Only few people with hearing disabilities can use the international sign language. From the point of view of it's necessary to stress, that the people with disabilities have the same psychosocial needs, as everyone else during emergency situations. The only difference is how these needs are met. With people with hearing disabilities, we have to focus on specifics of communication. In emergency situations, they have limited access to information. This is why it's necessary to give information proactively, and using different tools. Now, I would to talk about some of the rules of communication with people with hearing difficulties. During emergency situations, don't pity people with hearing disabilities, but focus on their specific communication methods. If you can, seek the help of a sign language interpreter. But how to communicate with sign language users without an interpreter. First of all, it's important to talk face to face. Speak slowly, but not too slowly. It's important to articulate well. Don't stand with your back to the source of light. But not all people with hearing disabilities can read lips well. You can use pen, and paper. Write, and draw. If a sign language interpreter is present, don't [INAUDIBLE] directly at a person with hearing disabilities. The interpreter should stay by your side, facing the person with hearing disabilities. It's important to be able to see each other sides. It's an advantage, if you know some sign language. For example, for following phrases, or words. Yes. No. Do you have hearing disability? Do you know sign language? My name is. I'm a rescuer, a paramedic. Don't be afraid. I will help you. Don't move. We have to evacuate you. Where does it hurt? Sit. Lie still. Ambulance, a doctor, police, explosion, shelter. Come with me. Here is some water, drink. I understand. I don't understand. Are you missing someone? There is a danger. And sit down. First, introduce yourself. State your role, and what you will do with the person. Inform the person about what happened, and what will be the next steps. You can show, and demonstrate how you will use the rescue, or medical equipment. You can also use intuitive signs, as if a person lost their hearing during an accident. You can write instructions on paper, for example, are you conscious? Blink once to say yes, blink twice to say no. Do you feel your legs? Can you move? Do you want to move? We will get you out soon. You can also use pictures of the human body, so that the person can show us where they feel pain. You can not use a picture of a house, of a car, a plane, of a school, etc. Sometimes, you can draw. People with hearing disabilities are used to communicating with drawings. You can also use a written book with phrases. Examples of useful phrases. Do you know what happened? There was an air crash. Are you injured? Are you in pain? Show me where it hurts. Are you missing someone? Was someone left behind in the house? Are you hungry? Whom could we call? Do you have the number of an interpreter? Etc. Now, recommendation, and summary. While you're communicating with people with hearing disabilities, always respect their human dignity. Talk face to face with the deaf. Talk to the side with the hard of hearing, where they have remaining sense of hearing. Find out, if you are meeting their basic needs. Provide contact with them [INAUDIBLE] their family, and friends. Inform Find out, if the person has not lost their technical hearing aid, for instance. Find out, if they need medication, hygienic items. If they are injured, speak in short sentences. Articulate clearly. Do not shout. Check if the persons understand you correctly. Don't rely on the fact, that the person will be able to read your lips. Try to use possible way of communication, every possible way. For example, gestures, signs, writing on paper, using a book with pictures, pictographs, or useful phrases. Psychological first aid is human support, and practical help, to people who are suffering after crisis ends. It covers both social, and psychological support. People with hearing disabilities have the same needs as other people. The rules for are the same. The only difference is in the form of communication. Most people over time, especially if they can restore their basic needs, and to receive appropriate support in Take people to safe place. Protect them from abuse, help them access medical care, and other services. Help people address basic needs, and cope with their problems. Give them information of the crisis event, support services available, and how to seek help. Connect to people with loved ones, and social support. Thank you for your attention.