[MUSIC] Hi, we’re talking about the ways that popularity has an effect on outcomes even years later. And we’ve talked about externalizing symptom outcomes, internalized symptom outcomes and now we’re going to talk about health risk behaviors. Health risk behaviors are any behaviors that might have an effect on our morbidity or mortality years later. So, any types of behaviors that could affect our health. For instance, those might include substance use, sexual risk behaviors, self-injurious behaviors or even weight-related behaviors to try and modify our body shapes. And it's interesting, there's been a lot of research to demonstrate. That even our experimentation with some of these health risk behaviors in adolescence has major implications for how long we live and how healthy we are way into adulthood and even into old age. So it's really important that we study health risk behaviors, as an outcome in its own rights since it has major implications on our health. In particular, it's been interesting that there's been such a dramatic increase in health risk behaviors over time. And again, research demonstrating that as those risk behaviors increase in adolescence, we're seeing the effects on adulthood. So we know of course, that the use of alcohol and marijuana in adolescence is related to the use of other substances, including more hard drugs like heroin, and cocaine later on in adulthood. We know that the use of substances in adolescence also is something related to cardiovascular disease and a higher likelihood of cancer in adulthood, some forms of cancer. Perhaps most interesting, there's been a lot of research growing on sexual risk behaviors. In the United States, there are 1 million new teenage pregnancies every year. There are 3 million new sexually transmitted infections or STIs reported among adolescents every single year and the rate of HIV infection grows faster among adolescents than in any other age group at least here in the states. So we see here that engagement in sexual risk behavior more frequently in adolescents now, but it also has implications for health later on. So sexually transmitted infections in adolescents lead to an increase likelihood of sexually transmitted infections in adulthood, but also it can lead an increase rate of cervical cancer among women in adulthood. There's been a lot of research that's tried to understand how it is that popularity may play a role on various health risk behaviors and first, we can talk a little bit about substance use. This is an, actually an area where we've seen a lot of research being done on a whole range of substances. People have looked at alcohol, usually looking at what's called heavy episodic drinking, which is drinking five or more drinks on a single occasion, usually within just three to four hours. We see research that's predicting tobacco use, including increasingly the use of various forms of tobacco or nicotine, including now e-cigarettes. We're also seeing research that's being done on more hard drug use a and a lot of this research has been done using a follow forward design trying to test a causal model. Is it the case that rejection or other forms of popularity in childhood might predict adolescent outcomes in terms of substance use? After controlling for prior levels of aggression or other types of that we know could have predicted substance use and might have predicted rejection and there's actually been quite a number of significant effects in this area. But very interestingly, when we look at the effects of likeability. So popular, rejected, neglected, controversial and average. We find that the effects are really mixed and confusing. So there's been some research to show that kids who are rejected at the age of nine years old are more likely to use alcohol or smoke pot when they grow up, much later in adolescence. That might be, especially the case for those kids that are rejected aggressive. And some of that research has demonstrated that rejected, aggressive kids, when they become adolescents, they might be most likely to hang out with the groups of kids that are more deviant or the burnouts or the potheads as they're called in some high schools, particularly in the United States. Suggesting that it's peer-rejection that leads them to affiliate with other deviant peers that haven't been able to make friends with others and it's that deviant peer group affiliation that leads them to engage in substance use. But although there have been a couple research studies showing that affect, there have also been a number of research studies showing that it might be controversial kids that are most likely to engage in substance use or it might even be the kids who are accepted by peers that are the mostly likely to engage in substance use over time. So it's actually been a very mixed literature, which for many years in the past was very confusing. Similarly, there's also been research to suggest that engagement in weigh-related behaviors might be related to earlier levels of popularity. But again, the results are pretty mixed. So by weight-related behaviors or behaviors designed to affect our body shape, I'm talking mostly about the kinds of behaviors that used to be studied mostly among young women, things like bingeing, purging, fasting, inappropriate dieting or excessive exercise. Things that can be in some ways healthy, but when done excessively or some behaviors that are just maladaptive no matter what like binging and purging or fasting. Things that are designed specifically to change the body's shape, usually to produce that unrealistically thin body. But increasingly, there's been a lot of research that's demonstrated that some of these weight-related behaviors might occur. Also among obese males, but also things steroid use or inappropriate and excessive weight training might be something also related to male's body concerns. And research has demonstrated that popularity is related to both body dissatisfaction and engagement in a wide variety of these types of behaviors and even eating disorders. But again, the findings are mixed. Some have found that those who are the most accepted or liked by their peers are the ones most likely to engage in these body related behaviors or weight-related behaviors. But others have found that it might be those that are rejected, that grow up to feel the most concerned about their bodies and to engage in many of these maladaptive behaviors. So overall, the research is suggesting that there's something about popularity that might be relevant to health risk behaviors, but the findings were a little bit mixed and it was only recently when we started looking at the newer type of popularity. So again, not the type based on likeability, but the type based on your reputation of being high status and dominant and influential. That type of social reputation, that might be the most relevant for health risk behaviors and that's what we're going to talk about next.