Welcome back everyone, to the second week of the course on Resilience in Children. In this session, I'm just going to provide a brief overview of what we will be covering during the second week of the course. We're going to talk about methods and models that resilience scientists use in their studies, and one approach is to focus on individual people, people who show resilience. Sometimes they're studied just as a single case, and sometimes they're studied in groups. So, we will take a look at the single case method, and this diagram comes from a case study of a little girl named Sarah which you will be learning more about. And then after we talk about the single case, we'll take a look at studies of larger groups of children because there's some shortcomings to the single case approach to studying resilience. In the group approach, people compare groups of children that show resilience with other children who are having, problems in their life, and they try to figure out what makes the difference. We'll also look at variable focused methods. These are methods where people measure, risk, protective factors and outcomes and try to figure out how they're related to each other. For example, we will look at risk gradients. These are studies that count up the risk factors in a person's life, and they study how problems or good outcomes are related to those risk factors, and I'll be explaining what those white dots mean in that class. We'll also look at studies where they examine moderators of risk, looking at variables that might make a difference, and help children do better when there's a lot of risk in their lives. This is an example where parenting quality makes a difference. And we'll be looking at additional examples of moderator methods. We'll also look at pathway models of resilience, because sometimes we'll want to know how is a person's life is going through time. These, these pic, this picture represents different patterns. Some people show a steady good course, so functioning throughout their life. Other people go up and down, they start off not doing well and then they recover and go on to succeed in life. Other people experience a catastrophe. Their functioning falls off, and then they recover. We'll be considering different pathway models of resilience, and how people go about measuring and studying these kinds of patterns. There are also some combined methods we're going to look at, where people combine the approach of looking at groups of people, with the approach of looking at individuals through time, and sometimes these are called growth models. This is an example from a study we're going to look at of how children do in a school district in academic achievement, in this case reading, and their groups, the groups of children are organized by risk level. The children at the bottom have very high risk, and the children at the top are more advantaged. So, the, this shows their group achievement over time in reading, but we will also look at those children as individuals. And when, when you look at individuals, we'll track how individuals do over time. And although this graph looks a bit like spaghetti, we'll discover that you can get a lot of information from these kind of studies of individuals through time. We'll also look at intervention methods, because interventions are a great way to test theories about resilience. People do experiments where they try to promote resilience in one group by providing some sort of support or intervention and compare the, the outcomes of those children with other children who have experienced a different intervention or no intervention at all. And this is a wonderful way to test your ideas about resilience. We'll see how examples, from recent research of what people are trying to do. For example, to promote good outcomes in children at risk for school failure. We'll also along the way throughout this week and the rest of the course be looking at the measures that people use. How do they measure risk or adversity, or protective factors in a child's life, and we'll just be learning about this as we go along. So see you next session.