Hello. In this segment, we're going to continue our discussion of resilience methods and models. And talk about models of promotive factors. Previously, we talked about risk gradients. In a typical risk gradient, you're often looking at how a measure of risk predicts a negative outcome. But you can also look at how a risk, measure predicts a positive outcome. And then it would look flipped over. Because, as risk level rises in this diagram, the positive outcome that you're looking at begins to decrease. That's because they're negatively related to each other. And here's another way to illustrate another model of a risk predict factor that's predicting a good outcome. And there's a minus sign there, because the prediction is negative. Meaning, the higher the risk level gets, the worse the outcome gets on this positive indicator of outcome. There also are positive predictors of alt, positive outcomes and these go by several different names, and they all mean the same kind of thing. And sometimes they're called promotive factors, sometimes they're called assets and sometimes they're called resources. And they all refer to variables that you can measure. That are positive, and that predict a, a good outcome. So let's put them together. In this, in this model, we have both positive and negative predictors of a desired outcome. And we'll, we have assets that, some measure of assets that's predicting this outcome, and some measure of risk. That is predicting this outcome, but they predict it in different directions. The relationship between the assets and the outcome is positive, and the relationship between the risk variable and the outcome is negative. It's also possible that risk factors can affect the assets in a child's life, instead of the outcome. And this is an example of an indirect effect, on a child's life. And that's illustrated in this model. So here, we see that this risk measure has a negative impact on an assets that important in a child's life. And indirectly affects the child's outcome, because as the risk factor harms the assets it affects how the child is doing. And then we're going to see a number of examples of this, in the course. For example, economic crisis or strain can affect how a parent is feeling and then that parent, doesn't do or is overwhelmed and can't do as good a job in taking care of their child. That would be an example of an indirect effect of risk factor on a child's outcome. That's mediated by it's impact on something else, that's important in the child's life. We also have learned in the study of risk and promotive factors, that many of the variables of interest in resilience, actually work both ways. These are measures that are indicators of a continuum, from a ver, where lowest means you are not doing very well on this indicator. To high meaning, you, you have a high score on something important. An example would be cognitive skills. Cognitive skills is related to how well you do in school. For example, as shown in this model. And if you have high cognitive skills, you do better in school. And if you have low cognitive skills, you do worse in school. So, this is a dimension, a variable that measures a dimension that ranges from a very low level to a very high level. And it's related to the outcome of interest. In this illustration and model we see the same idea portrayed in a somewhat different way. In this case, our variable that is related to the outcome academic achievement will use as our outcome is divided into high and low scores, and we put it on a measure on a graph that also shows risks. And what you can see is that, you're always better off, if you have a higher score on this particular measure. Could be cognitive skills, or it could be something else. But no matter what level of risk we observe here, the children are, who have the high scores are doing better at school or in academic achievement in this case. And this is an example of how some assets and promotive factors work. They work the same way at all levels of risk. However, there are other variables that don't work the same way as risk varies and we want, we're going to take a look next at those kind of variables. And what you can see here is that, in these cases, we're going to try to figure out, how is it that some people are doing so much better than we would expect under high levels of risk. And we're going to take a look at diagrams like this one. In this example, we are looking again at three variables. We're looking at risk getting higher and higher. We're looking at academic functioning, so high is good on this measure. And we're looking at parenting quality, another variable that we can measure. But in this case, parenting quality has a more important effect when risk levels are high, as you can see here. So, if you have worse parenting quality available to you, your parents are overwhelmed maybe, with whatever the risk factors are in this family's life. And this child is not doing very well. The children who have very high quality parenting are look like they're protected, even when risk is high, they're doing better. And we're going to take a closer look at those kind of moderators in the next session.