Finally, we will turn our attention to the third guiding principle, which is designing for redundancy. We have defined this earlier as identifying or creating interchangeable elements that could function if one or more aspects of your course plan fails due to a perturbation that could occur in your learning environment. So how have you consider this idea of redundancy as you've been planning your course? So one example here connects back to my use of videotape lectures that I've mentioned earlier. Another thing that I'm considering along with the videotape lectures is to post the lecture in written form, almost like an e-book, where I can have the text of the lecture, maybe embed some of the slide images within it, etc. So what's interesting about that idea is that some students have mentioned over the years and in other courses that they actually don't always like to follow videotape lectures as it's harder for them to focus on the lecture when they're outside of class versus when they're in class or right in the lecture. So this idea of lecture e-books would give them an alternative, it would give them another form of the lecture that some students might be comfortable with when they're viewing them in different places. So they could be reading the lecture in the sense rather than viewing it. It's giving me another alternative, it's posting the lecture in another form. The redundancy piece to this is if something was to go wrong with the video streaming or something was problematic with the video of the lecture, we have that fallback opportunity where the students could then look at the lecture e-book and at least read the material and look at the slides that way. It might not be perfect for all of the students, but it gives us a way of maintaining the content of the lecture in a different form. So we essentially have different versions, different types of lecture material in case something is problematic with one of those types, we don't lose the entire lecture. It sounds you're making connections here to Universal Design for Learning. Can you talk us through a little bit more about how you're thinking about those ideas here. Yeah, this is an example, I think, of multiple means of representation. So I'm using different representations for the lecture. We have the video and we have the textual versions of the lecture, and students can pick their preference, which also again, as I mentioned, it gives me redundancy with the lecture material, but it gives students a range of representations that they can choose and use the one that they like better. The principle of designing for resiliency somewhat brings us back full circle to the idea of designing for extensibility, where we think about starting small and building out from there. How are you thinking about redundancy in relationship to extensibility? Where are you going to start? So when we are starting our initial course design, you might be thinking about different approaches you can take, different pedagogical strategies you can use in the course. As you're doing this, you can also think about how different strategies might enable you to meet the same goal so that you have multiple ways of doing something. That way if one of those strategies fails, you can still continue, you don't lose the entire thing. So I think the relationship here is that as you start to extend the base case, you can do that extending in a way that lets you think about different ways of doing something. You might still do this incrementally, but as you're growing that design, you can have that in the back of your mind, are there multiple ways of achieving this particular goal for my course? Are there multiple strategies I can enact to do that? If I start to find these different ways of doing something, I am just naturally starting to build up a redundant system. As you might also possibly be thinking about future semesters, what long-term goals might you have as you think about strengthening your resilient design choices? I think the thing about designing for resilience is that you don't necessarily have to look at it as an approach for fixing a problem, but you should think about resilience as an approach that could result in a stronger product than you started with. So certainly right now at this moment, we're forced to think about different contingencies: online, in-person, hybrid, and as we do that, I think the end product that we come up with by thinking about these alternatives will be a more robust course that could lead us to create educational scenarios that could work across variety of settings. I'm not sure I could articulating long-term goals at the moment because I'm in the midst of this redesign, but one thing I've thought about is that it would be interesting to see how taking this resilient design approach might change my standard course, the way I've been doing things for many years, and I have a feeling that in rethinking the course in this way, with multiple strategies, and multiple representations, and these flexible approaches, and redundant approaches, I have a feeling that that's going to lead me to make my standard course even better than it was before. It's wonderful to hear that. So as we conclude, we will talk in our next video about how we can pull all of us together.