Even popular music had something to do with the development of rock and roll music in an odd sort of way, which I'll explain in a minute. The early pop stars were the crooners who performed with big bands and swing orchestras. The most gigantic star in the early mass media era was Bing Crosby. And it's fascinating, cuz he was viewed as a trustworthy, wholesome, fatherly sort of figure. He appeared often in a cardigan, smoking a pipe. He was ended up being a movie star. So we're gonna hear a classic Crosby piece from the big band era. It was recorded when he sang with the Dorsey Brothers Orchestra in 1929. Soon afterward is when he became a movie star. [MUSIC] Another movie star was Fred Astaire. He is better known actually as a dancer, but he was a very good singer too. Here he does Cheek to Cheek in 1935. [MUSIC] So now that we have set the stage, who do you think was the first big rock star as far as the reaction of fans was concerned? Frank Sinatra was a rock and roll star before it was called rock and roll. Frank Sinatra rock and roll, you say? Well, he did something that no one else was able to do or dared to do. Sinatra crossed over jazz music with contemporary pop music, appealing to mostly white audiences. He opened the way for artists such as Pat Boone and Tony Bennett who came along much later. It was something safe and classy, this sort of music that Frank Sinatra came up with. So as far as the cultural icon of the era, Sinatra was it. Single-handedly creating the groupie structure. Girls crying and fainting at his concerts, even throwing their panties on stage. Sinatra experienced unbelievable superstardom. He began as a singer with jazz big bands. Here he is doing Stardust from 1943. [MUSIC] Over time, Sinatra grew up musically. Some people call this record he did called the Wee Small Hours, the first concept album in history. Meaning that the album was organized around a central theme, which is something that hadn't been done before at least not much if at all. This particular theme was Late Night Isolation and you can argue it's a bunch of love songs or a bunch of breakup songs, but regardless of that. They were a set of songs specifically recorded as a set. Back in the day, an average album was a collection of songs put together by a record company. This marked the beginning of the era in which an artist had some control over what was to be recorded and what would be included in a full album. [MUSIC] As with many American adults in the 1950s, Sinatra had an extremely negative attitude toward rock and roll. Here is what he said. It is quote, the most brutal, ugly, desperate, vicious form of expression it has been my misfortune to hear, end quote. What a statement. Regarding Elvis Presley, he said quote, his kind of music is deplorable, rancid smelling aphrodisiac. It fosters almost totally destructive reactions from young people. A pretty venomous remark, I would say. But then in the end, Elvis and Frank kissed and made up. Here's a photo of Frank welcoming Elvis back from the Army appearing together on a TV special in 1960 and upon Elvis's death in 1977 even though this is well pass the era were covering in this class. Sinatra said, I shall miss him dearly as a friend. He was a warm, considerate and generous man, end quote. Well, this is a little bit off topic, but Sinatra's daughter Nancy Sinatra had a short, but lasting impact in rock and roll. This original, These Boots are Made for Walking was a pop hit. But the musicians on it are some of the most famous session men of the era known as the wrecking crew, a group of musicians who worked with producer, Phil Spector in Los Angeles at Gold Star Studios. Many cover versions have been released in a whole range of styles, some of them even humorous. We're talking heavy metal, punk rock, country, dance and even industrial. Here she goes, 1966 number one song. [MUSIC] When we come back, we'll talk about black popular music.