I want to say just a very few words about two other tombs out on the Via Appia in Rome the Appian way again. And, I show you a view of the Via Appia as it looks today. You can see that although much of the road is modern, you do find bits and pieces of ancient ground out there. You can see some polygonal blocks here and some rut marks from the ancient road. And you have to be very careful [LAUGH] when you drive out there in your Cinquecento, or whatever. to, or you bike ride out there, as this fellow is doing, where you take your motorbike or whatever. Because if you're going too quickly and you don't real, you know, you don't expect it, all of a sudden you hit some ancient road, and that makes a huge difference in terms of your ability to get, to move forward. I want to show you one tomb very fleetingly out there which is the one that you see over here on the left hand side of the screen. There are remains of many tombs on the Via Appia. Most of them are just piles of concrete, but a few of them are better preserved and this is one of them. It's a tomb of a freedmen, freed men and freed women from 13 B.C. to A.D. 5. We call it the Reberius tomb because of an inscription that tells us members of the Reberius family were buried here. The reason that I show it to you is that the eccentric tombs that I've shown you today are absolutely marvelous and tell us a lot about the Romans as patrons and as, and their desires vis-a-vie memory. But it is not, those are not the conventional tomb types. We see many more of this sort of thing, which we call a house tomb, a tomb that resembles a house, essentially. It has a sloping, a ceiling, and you know, a main facade, and in that facade there is usually a portrait relief, either vertical or horizontal. But these horizontal ones represent members of the family, some may be deceased, some may not be deceased. The message is that even if someone has died before another, that they will eventually be reunited together in perpetuity. But if you look at this carefully, you will see that what it looks like is as if these individuals are still alive and looking out of the window of their tomb as if out of the window of a house. This very close association in the minds of the Romans between houses of the living and houses of the dead. And that is absolutely the case here, and you'll remember we can trace this all the way back to the 8th century B.C.. You'll remember the hut, the Villanovan hut that I showed you. And I told you that women's remains were placed in, women's cremated remains were placed in these huts that resembled Romulus' huts. and, and so this whole idea of a house serving as a tomb goes way back and continues to be a leitmotif of Roman tomb architecture throughout the entire history of Roman architecture. And it's something that I hope you'll keep in mind. Also, just in passing I want to mention. We've looked, the tombs that we've looked at thus far today have been primarily, they've been of all different social classes, from emperor to freed slave. But at the same time they have all been tombs, including the Rabirez tomb, of the well-to-do. If these were freed slaves, they were ones that made a fortune, like Eurysaces did selling bread to the Roman army. And with that fortune, were able to build monumental tombs, at great expense. But there were lots and lots of people, obviously, who lived in Rome and Pompeii and in other cities who could not afford those kinds of tombs. And you might be asking yourselves, where were all of those people buried? Well they tended to be buried underground in what we call columbaria, C-O-L-U-M-B-A-R-I-A, columbaria. Underground burial chambers that were either burial clubs that you could join for a small amount of money. You could join one of these clubs buy in to your last resting place that way. Or they were burial chambers that were created by the very well-to-do, for example, the Emperor and Empress, Augustus and Livia. We know they had thousands of slaves, literally thousands of slaves. We have a record of some of Livia's slaves. She has slave not only to tend the garden and that kind of thing but she had a masseuse, she had several hair stylists. And she even had a slave we know who set her pearls. That was her whole job, was to set her pearls day in and day out. So they had tons and tons of slaves, and some of those very well-to-do, also established these burial areas where their slaves could find a last resting place. And in fact, the one that I show you here, the Vigna Codini is one such that belonged to the Julio, to Augustine Julio-Claudian family and was used for the remains of some of their slaves. And you can see that each individual had a little niche. Again, people were cremated. The cremated remains [SOUND] were placed usually in an urn that was placed inside one of these niches. And then there would be a small inscription referring to the deceased. So this gives you a sense, again, of those who could not afford individual tombs and how they were buried. In the, in the five or seven minutes that remain, I'd like to switch gears entirely and look at something very different as a prelude to what we'll be talking about next time. Because next time, next Tuesday, we are going to return once again to innovative Roman architecture. Architecture made of, of concrete and with a variety of interesting innovations. We'll do that next week as I said. And I want to, to give you an introduction to that, by turning to this one example from the Augustan period that is noteworthy enough for us to say something about it. This is what you're looking at here is the plan of what was a spa, essentially, in ancient Roman times. It's located in Campania at a place called Baiae. So in the vicinity of Pompeii and Herculaneum and Oplontis and Boscotrecase, and so on. We've already talked about the fact that that was an area that was a mecca for the well to do, the glitterati from Rome, who went down there for their vacations. It was a resort area. Many of them had villas along what is now the Amalfi coast. Others had villas on the Island of Capri. I can't remember if I told you that Augustus and Tiberius' successor owned 12 villas on the island of Capri, one of which we'll look at next time. And this was an area also where there were sulfur springs and mineral baths. And so, the natural thing to do for those who were coming here as a resort was to create for them a place that they could go to relax and enjoy the thermal springs and the sulfur baths and so on and so forth. And that was this place. This spa, at Baiae, which consisted of a bunch of thermal structures that were terraced out over a hillside. You have to think of the sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia at Palestrina turned into a spa. Because they treated it, architecturally it was done in exactly the same way. They took a hillside, they terraced that hillside, they poured concrete on that hillside, creating a whole host of interesting structures in which one could relax and get away from it all. You see a plan of that spa here in the way in which it was terraced by a concrete construction over this hillside. I am only going to show you one thermal bath from it, and it's this one that we see over here. It is the so-called Temple of Mercury. That's what the locals have long called it. It is not a Temple of Mercury. It is a thermal bath but nonetheless we call it that because it's been called that for such a long time. As you look at the plan of the Temple of Mercury, you're going to say to me, everyone of you will say the same thing, what's the origin of this? Clearly the design is based on the Frigidaria of Pompeii. The Frigidarium or the cold room of Pompeii. This round structure with the radiating alcoves we saw as part of that bath architecture very early on. 2nd century BC and so on in Pompeii. Same scheme used here. Not surprising, this is in Campania, it's not far away. [COUGH] I can show you the Temple of Mercury is extremely well preserved. We can see the dome of the Temple of Mercury made out of concrete construction from above. >> [COUGH]. >> You can see the oculus of the, just as those for, Friggitoria has oculae, oculi, this one does as well, and you can see that extremely well here. So, a concrete building with a concrete dome used as part of this spa. We traced this desire to make round structures way back to the 600s B.C., the time of Quintofurentino. I showed you this Etruscan attempt at making a round structure with a dome. that, that was done in this case in stone and although it was a valiant attempt, not all that successful. And we talked about the way in which that eventually transformed into the Roman ability to make the Frigidaria at Pompeii. And here are two views of the Temple of Mercury at Baiae as it looks today. Because of the oculus there is often rainwater, the drain no longer functions. So there's of, often a lot of, of, of, of very [LAUGH] unappealing green water that, that accumulates in the base of the Temple of Mercury. So the times that I've been there, I, every time I think I've been there, there's been enough water in there that I haven't been able to actually get pictures of the alcoves. Which are covered by these inches and inches of water that are usually collected inside the Temple of Mercury. But you get a good sense, I think, of it here nonetheless that we're talking about a round domed structure with an oculus, with some windows, with arcuated windows, windows with arc, arcuations at the top. In the upper-most part or toward the upper-most part of the dome to add additional light into the system. And you need to think of these, by the way, as much more ornate in antiquity than they are today. They would have been stuccoed over, which you can see, and then probably decorated with mosaic. so, the wonderful effects of the light coming in, hitting the mosaic. And then, there would have been a pool in the center, just as there was in the Frigidarium around people, which people could sit. You would it would have been a quite spectacular space. And I just, just a few more views to end with today. This one up here, which of course is the Frigidarium at Pompeii, to show you where all of this begins. These two views are of the Temple of Mercury at Baiae. And this one, of course, of the Pantheon, which is where we're headed. But I think these, in particular, of the temple of Mercury at Baiae, again, give you a sense of the way in which light, not only flows into this system. Again, imagine it on mosaic ceiling and mosaic walls. The spectacular effects, the way it would have glittered in the light. But look especially at the way the, the shape, the shapes that are formed on the water that would have been in the pool down below. It's exactly the same, the same sort of sense that you get when you walk into the Pantheon today, which also makes circles on the floor of the pavement. So we're going to again return to these kinds of issues next week. I just wanted you to be aware of this intermediate step between the Frigidaria of Pompeii and some of the buildings that we're going to be looking at in the next couple of weeks.