Good morning. From the time of Julius Caesar, we have seen the rulers of Rome brag about building buildings that were bigger than any others in the world. You'll remember Caesar referred to his, to his Temple of Mars in that way, that he was building the largest temple of Mars in the world. And we also saw the same for Domician with his palace on the Palatine Hill, for Trajan with his enormous forum, for Hadrian building the greatest, largest dome that had been build up until that time, and as we discussed, still the largest diameter dome in the city of Rome today. And Hadrian's Villa at Tivoli, just as a selection of examples. We are going to see today, that if bigger was better, biggest is best. And in the case of the Emperor Caracalla, an emperor who was a megalo, megalomaniac in the, in the tradition of Nero and Domitian, that he built the largest imperial bath structure to date. And we're going to be looking at that bath structure today, and we're going to see it is really a colossal and fascinating building, in all kinds of ways. But before I get to that, in fact we'll end, with that bath structure today. Before I get to that, I would like to look with you at, architecture in Rome in the second and third centuries A.D.. And we'll see that architecture is quite varied in terms of whether it's private, it's civic, it's also funerary. I want to, begin though, by just reminding you of what we talked about last time. We looked at the city of Ostia. And we looked at the city of Ostia, the port of Rome, in it's entirety. Once again, it's public buildings, its civic structure, its commercial enterprises, and we also went at the very end of the lecture out to Isola Sacra where the tombs of the, of the, of those who lived in Ostia were located. And I show you a couple of those again now on the screen, these brick faced tombs, these tombs that are made of concrete, at Isola Sacra, that were put up for the professionals, for the traders, the commercial merchants and so on that lived in the city of Ostia. They were made of brick-faced concrete construction. They had barrel vaults or groin vaults inside. And you can see also that they were faced with brick, and they were faced with brick as we discussed, that was exposed. The idea of brick being attractive in its own right, a fabulously beautiful facing, that they take advantage of in the second century A.D., and decide not to stucco it over, as you can see so well here. The doorways into those tombs, surrounded by travertine jambs and lintels, the inscription in the center, the small slit windows, and then, a pediment at the top. We saw, when we looked at funerary architecture in the age of Augustus, for example, that it was very varied; very varied. Pyra- tombs in the shape of pyramids, in the shape of circular tombs. Tombs that made reference to bakeries, like the Tomb of the Baker Eurysaces. There is still a certain amount of variety in tomb architecture in the second century A.D., but they tend to hone in on one type in particular, and that type is the so called house tomb type, which is exactly what we see here, a tomb that is rectangular in shape for the most part, box like, and does resemble, very closely, a house. This close relationship that we've talked about so many times this semester between houses of the living and houses of the dead. So we looked at those last time. And where I want to begin today is just to demonstrate to you that these same kinds of house tombs that we see in Ostia and Isola Sacra, in the second century A.D., we also see in Rome. And in some cases they are commissioned by individuals of comparable social status, to those in Ostia, but sometimes they are commissioned by the most elite. And I'd like to begin with an example of a similar tomb commissioned by the most elite. This is the so-called Tomb of Annia Regilla, in Rome. It was put up on the famous Via Appia, or the Appian Way. It dates to around A.D. 161. In this case we know who the commissioner was, and I can show you what he looked like, as well. You see him here, on the right hand side of the screen. He was a man by the name of Herodes Atticus; I've put his name on the monument list for you, Herodes Atticus. Herodes Atticus was actually a Greek. He was Athenian, from the Greek part of the Empire, he lived in Athens for the most part and he commissioned a very famous music hall, an Odeon, which still survives. You can see it over here, it's without its roof today, but it was originally one of these roofed music halls, an Odeon. It is located on the slope of the Acropolis in Athens, the Acropolis that of course we know primarily for it's great architectural feats of the fifth century B.C. in Greece. This is a Roman building, put up by Herodes in the second century, and we see it on the slope of the Acropolis very well preserved. In modern times its great this fame is the fact that Yanni performed his" Live at the Acropolis" concert, at the Odeon of, of, of, Agrippa. And even if you, of Herodes Atticus. And even if you don't like Yanni, it's actually quite an interesting, concert to view and one can view it, in, in video and so on, because it does take such wonderful advantage of this extraordinary ancient structure, as Yanni presents his music. At any rate, at one point, Herodes Atticus, who had a lot of connections, not only in Athens, but around the empire, at one point through those connections, he gets himself appointed a senator in Rome. And in order to take up that position, he needs to leave Athens behind and go spend sometime in Rome, and he and his wife, Annia Regilla, set up house in Rome. Annia Regilla, unfortunately, dies in Rome, and he needs to bury her, and he decides to bury her in Rome instead of in Athens, and he builds for her a tomb on this, on the Appian way, on the via Appia, in around 161 A.D., that's the date, the date that we believe she died. And we see a, a view of that, of that tomb here. What we're looking at, and you probably recognize this already because we've looked at a number of models from this museum of casts in Rome, the Museo della Civilta Romana, in EUR, in Rome. And I show you two views of this model of the Tomb of Annia Regilla. One that we see from the front, and another that we see from, if we're facing the monument, the left side of the tomb. And these are extremely helpful, because they give us a very good sense of what we are dealing with here. It is clear that we are dealing with a tomb type that is not that different from what we saw in Ostia, although this looks more like a temple than it looks like a house. And you can see that right off. It looks exactly like a typical Roman temple. We see that it is on a high podium; it has a deep porch; it has a free standing columns in that porch; it has a single staircase on the front of this structure; it has facade orientation; then an entrance way into the structure. It also has free standing columns that support a pediment. So if I were to show you this and, and not identify it and say to you, what kind of a building this is? I'm sure you would have said it was a temple, and you would have been right, in the sense that it looks most like a temple. But it is a tomb in the form of a temple, as you can well see here. Looking on the, on the side of the monument, you can also see those same features that I've just described. And while we are looking at this view, because I'm not going to bring it back. I want to point out one detail that will loom large as we look further at, at this structure. You will see on the left side of the, of the tomb, that the architect has, has created, has kind of scalloped out the side on either side, creating niches, tall niches on, on the side and placed columns into that space, which is a very unusual thing to do. It's not true on the other side of the monument, only on this side of the structure. Why has the architect done that? I think it might have something to do with the sighting, perhaps how you viewed it from the street. Maybe it was skewed in such a way that you would see not only the facade, but also the side and he wanted to emphasize, the, the, the, the columns on that particular side of the structure. But it may also have just had to do with, with the quirk, with this, a particular interest that the, that the architect or the patron had in doing something different, than any other tomb. And I want to return to that point in a moment. But most significant of all is that in terms of the building technique, the use of concrete phased with exposed brick. This is exactly what we saw in Ostia. And you can see that just as in Ostia, they have taken that brick as far as it can go, in terms of its aesthetic value, by respecting the texture of the brick, playing that texture off, playing color, different colored bricks, a reddish brick against a more yellowish colored brick, playing those off against one another, and then adding certain very highly decorative details, like a meander pattern that we're going to see in a moment, and decoration around the windows of the tomb, done in stucco. The columns, however, are marble. The columns are marble, and in that sense again, something somewhat different than what we saw at Ostia. This is a view of the tomb as it looks today. The porch is not well preserved, and I can't show you any of that. But I can show you the rest of the structure and you can see it quite well in this particular view. And again, you see that it is indeed well preserved. Concrete construction, faced with brick, brick left exposed, respected and enjoyed in its own right. What I've already described, the playing off of one color of brick against another, this meander pattern done in stucco. The stucco decoration, very elaborate decoration as we're going to see around the windows, tall podium, you see that here as well, an extraordinary structure. And what's interesting, I think, to know, at least culturally and in terms of social status is the fact that although this structure was put up for one of the most wealthy man, in, or the wife of one of the most wealthy man in Rome at this particular time. The general aesthetic is very similar to what we saw for professional people in the city of Ostia, that is a concrete tomb, in the form of a house or temple in this case, that is, that has as his facing brick and a respect for that brick in its own right. Here, a couple of details. I show you once again a detail of the warehouse, or the Horrea Epagathiana at, Ostia, that we looked at. And also a detail of the Tomb of Annia Regilla in Rome, and I think you can see here what I mean. Again, the different coloration of brick, the yellowish brick, the reddish brick, played off one against the other. The use of stucco decoration, in this case for the volutes of the composite capitals. In this case, and in fact, in fact you'll remember I pointed out what was interesting about these capitals at the warehouse, was that they were, that the brick was used to make up the main body of the, of the capital. And this is not one of them, but I also showed you one where you could see, the way in which that brick formed the actual acanthus leaves of the capital. And then the volutes is added in stucco. We see the same thing at the Tomb of Annia Regilla. We see those, here I think you can see it well. The brick used to create the lower part of the acanthus leaves, and then stucco added for the curving part, and for some of the additional decoration, the flower and so on up above. And so we see and here again, very elaborate decoration around the windows, which we also saw at the warehouse in Ostia. Two more details of the Tomb of Annia Regilla. Here you see what I was talking about before, the way they, the architect has scooped out two areas on the left side of the, of, of the tomb, and, and placed the columns inside of those, which is a unique. I don't know of any other example of this in Roman architecture, and it underscores, once again, that when it came to tomb architecture, that the, that the patron could pretty much do whatever he wanted, as long as the architect could build it. It could, it could be quite idiosyncratic as a form of architecture. And we see not only has he scooped out these niches in which to place the columns, but if you look at those columns very carefully, and at the bases of those columns, you will see that they are not round. They are multi-sided and the bases are also multi-sided. So doing something very unique in the context of this particular Tomb of Annia Regilla. So, you know, two main points. One, that there is clearly an aesthetic that is used for tomb architecture, concrete faced with brick that is used in the uppermost levels of Roman society, and then further down in Roman society, not only in Rome but also in Ostia. But at the same time individuality, eccentricity is valued into tomb architecture, allowed in tomb architecture in a way that perhaps it isn't in other forms of Roman architecture, and we see it taken into its limit in this particular building. Just a few more details. We see a niche from the Tomb of Annia Regilla. We also see here both the meander pattern and this very elaborate decoration around the windows, a frame around the windows and then a projecting element up above with these great spiral volutes on either side. Very similar to the same sort of thing that was happening in Ostia. I remind you of the niche in the courtyard of the Horrea Epagathiana, the warehouses at Ostia, where you see the same sort of thing. These stucco, pilasters added in stucco, the brickwork creating triangles and lozenges, as you can see here. Same idea over here, in the Tomb of Annia Regilla. And if you look very closely at the pediment that is located above the niche, from the tomb, in Rome you see the projecting entablatures. You see where the col-, the capitals would have been. There would also have been either col-, probably columns added here, on either side of the niche, making it look much more similar to here. But look closely at the pediment, you will see that there is projecting entablature on eith-, above each column. But then in the center, the triangular pediment is cut back and that playing around with the traditional vocabulary of architecture is something that I've noted is going to be a part of what we call the baroque trend in Roman architecture. I'm going to devote an entire lecture to the baroque trend in Roman architecture around the empire, not just in Rome, but mostly in the provinces. And we'll see that same sort of thing which creates a kind of in and out, lively movement to the, to the facade that is part of that, that approach. The tomb itself again, and just to point out interestingly enough a, a couple of female figures with, capitals on there, on the top of their head or what look like, maybe more like vases on the top of their head. But looking very much like caryatids, like the caryatids we saw from the Erectheion and Athens fifth century B.C. from the forum of Augustus and from Hadrian's Villa around the Serapeum. They are not, they are not duplicates of those in Athens like the other two are, but they do seem to make reference to them. They're a bit more casual. When I look at this, this pair they always look to me like they're kind of standing at a cocktail party together and conversing with one another using the usual gestures that Italians are so famous for. We see them doing that sort of thing here. But even, but they do seem to have that same pedigree, going back to the whole idea of the caryatids. And I only mention it to you, they were found right near this tomb, and so it has been speculated, although it is by no means certain that they might have belonged to the tomb. They might have been located in front of the tomb, or been some kind of fore-, part of some kind of forecourt or forespace to that tomb. It's pure conjecture, but it would be interesting if it were the case. Because remember Herodes Atticus comes from Athens. We see that the tomb is a thoroughly Roman tomb of the second century A.D.. But it would be interesting to think that he might have added some touches, that might have made some reference for him, and also especially for his wife whose tomb it was, to the Athens of his, of his birth.