This last module on local level planning will introduce you to the basic planning steps of the CLUES approach. The seven steps are fairly straightforward planning steps that reflect common sense in planning for the unplanned areas, taking into account multi-stakeholder setups and weak institutional settings. At the same time, the generic planning steps are flexible, and allow adaptation and alteration according to the individual settings. The seven planning steps are accompanied by 30 tools. The 30 tools help the individuals planning for the seven steps and allow adaptation to individual contexts. Let's look at the seven steps in detail. Step one begins with process ignition and demand creation. This is all about igniting the community planning process, sensitizing the community about environmental sanitation and hygiene issues, creating a good momentum and a basis for community participation, conducting a first community meeting and reaching an agreement on joint action and then finally creating a community task force which can carry forward the planning process and act as an interface between the community and other stakeholders. A nice example is shown here, from Nala in Nepal, where the entire community was brought together during a one day sanitation exhibition, or sanitation bazaar, carried out here in 2009. Also involved: national NGOs, local initiatives, community based organizations working in the areas of WASH, "water, sanitation and hygiene". Step two is about launching the planning process. This is the initial planning and consultative workshop where a common understanding about the complexity of environmental sanitation in the intervention area is developed. This is usually done by conducting a launching workshop that is inclusive, well-structured and creates public attention. The outcomes of this workshop are usually a protocol agreement, agreement on which areas should be planned for, and an agreement on the overall planning methodology and process. Again, an example from Nala, Nepal, where the entire community was invited for the launch of the planning. Step three is then about a detailed assessment of the current status. The assessment is done in a participatory way and includes both external as well as internal community knowledge. Here, understanding is developed about the physical and social economic environment of the intervention area. Step three involves community and other key stakeholders to gather and assess information. The main output could include stakeholder mapping, baseline data from an interview, or thorough assessment of the enabling environment and current levels of service provision. The outcomes of step three are then gathered and summarized in an assessment report. A number of tools can be used, from spatial maps, GIS maps, interviews, to focus group discussions. Prioritization and validation is the fourth step. This is all about reporting the outcomes from step three of the assessment report to the community and revising the findings of the assessment. And secondly, it's also about deciding which services should be given priority. This is usually done in a community workshop to validate the priorities. In some areas, this may be storm water drainage, in others, the bad state of environmental sanitation and fecal sludge management and in a third it may be the bad or deficient water provision in an area. Priority workshops don't necessarily need to be carried out at a central location. They can be done in a subward or street location like the one shown here where people from a given area of the neighborhood come together to discuss the priorities. Step five is then building on steps three and four and identifying the service options. This is about identifying environmental sanitation options that are feasible for the intervention area and are based on an informed choice approach. This includes issues like technical feasibility, and institutional, financial and social implications. The main outcome: an agreement on one or two environmental sanitation systems that should be studied in greater detail. The agreement is reached by the community together with local authority or utility. Step five is usually done in a set of workshops. This can be an expert workshop, for example, the one shown here on the right, from Vientiane in Laos, where different feasible sanitation solutions are being discussed. Or it can also be done together with communities at a larger scale. This of course needs a bit more time and preparation. The Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies on the left is a guiding document that helps structure this planning step. Important is the issue of affordability of the options, especially the capital expenditure or CAPEX. On the table here, we see the affordability of different toilets in East Africa. Four different income segments, starting with the cheapest option, the improvement of existing pit latrines for example, the adding of a new door that can be locked or the addition of a concrete or plastic slab. This usually costs around $90 to $100. Next up the cost ladder is a shared VIP latrine with a stone superstructure and a concrete slab shared by two households, anything between $200 and $250 depending on country and location And then, further up the ladder, the private VIP latrine, privately owned by one household with stone superstructure and lined pit. This will cost anywhere between $400 and $500 for the East African region. And then, the last and most expensive option, the household pour flush toilet that is connected to a simplified sewer network starting at around $500 upwards. These kind of prices and costs should be compared and also discussed with experts as well as with the community. Finally, step six is the development of an action plan. Here, a realistic and implementable action plan is produced. The main output is an action plan that is costed and funded, timed, and allows output based targets. Very important, every action plan for a given area must include an operation and maintenance management plan to ensure the correct functioning and sustainability of the sanitation system and services. Here the example of the plan for Nala from 2011. And then finally the implementation of the action plan. This includes incremental implementation steps for different given situations. On the left, the example from Curridabat in Costa Rica shows storm water drainage being put into a low-income community in Curridabat. In the middle, the connection of pour flush toilets to a communal septic tank, and on the right the construction of school toilets for primary school in a low income area of Dodoma, in Tanzania. A key output of step seven can be the production of catalogs that offer choice and options for different price ranges and are combined with micro credit or revolving funds for sanitation. These have been shown to work well in a number of countries around the world and come up with doable and implementable solutions. So far CLUES has been tested and validated or is being validated, in a number of countries around the world, in Asia, Africa and Latin America. Summing up the main CLUES advantages: CLUES offers flexibility and steps and tools that can be tailored to a particular local culture and capacity level. It is a demand-led approach that underlines the importance of community demand for the project. But, the community priorities are established and responded to during the process itself. And third, CLUES takes community participation seriously and the community is significantly involved in decision making and has a high degree of control over project outcomes and design decisions. Technology choice. CLUES provides guidance in decision making regarding waste water management and sanitation facilities. O&M implications are also important. It incorporates operation and maintenance considerations and the long-term costs for operating new facilities and services. And then finally, communication, the importance of culturally appropriate forms of communication between community process leaders, local government, and ensuring the transparency of the process. This module gave you an in-depth view of the CLUES planning steps. We will be featuring an applied case study from Nepal in Week 4 of this course to show you how CLUES was used in a small town context. Thanks for listening and we look forward to hearing from you next week.