Hello, everyone. I'm Denis Lamoureux, professor of science and religion at St Joseph's College in the University of Alberta. I'm delighted that you're interested in the topic of science and religion, and in particular in my course. Since 1997, I've delivered this course over 100 times. And students, both religious and non religious, have found it helpful in developing their own personal beliefs and worldview. Hopefully, you will too. So lets get started. Shall we? Please turn to page one in your class notes. The title of our introduction to this course on science and religion asks the question, only warfare? To explore this question, we need to deal directly with the problem that often appears with this topic, Science and Religion Warfare. Many people today believe that science and religion are always in conflict and that the two can never be in a peaceful relationship. To be sure, if we study history, we can find many examples of tensions between science and religion. But where this warfare relationship intensifies is with Charles Darwin's theory of evolution presented in his most famous book and titled, On The Origin Of Species in 1859. Very good example of someone who believes that science and religion are in conflict is Thomas Henry Huxley. And in a review of Darwin's book, Huxley uses the language of warfare to describe the relationship between science and religion. In quote 1, Huxley writes, history records that whenever science and Orthodoxy. The term orthodoxy here refers to religion. In other words, whenever science and religion have been fairly opposed, the latter, that is religion, has been forced to retire from the lists, bleeding and crushed if not annihilated, scotched, if not slain. Huxley offers us an example of the common understanding that science destroys religion. And as we will see, many people still hold this view today. From this perspective, there is no hope of a peaceful relationship between science and religion. Please turn to page 1 in your class handouts, for a diagram depicting science and religion warfare. This belief that there is a conflict produces what is known as the science versus religion dichotomy. A dichotomy refers to a division of an issue into only two simple positions. It involves thinking about issues in black and white, and either or terms. The problem with dichotomies is that it forces people into choosing between one of two positions. Therefore, according to the science versus religion dichotomy, you are either on the so called science side and notice my quotation marks or the so called religion side. Therefore, you cannot be both a scientist and a religious believer. This either or way of thinking then develops into what we call the evolution versus creation dichotomy. I'm certain that you can see the problem with this dichotomy. It forces people into choosing between only two positions. You are either on the side of so called evolution or you're on the so called side of creation, again, notice my quotation marks. Therefore, according to the evolution versus creation dichotomy, you cannot be both an evolutionist and a believer in a creator. Let's now look more closely at both sides of these science versus religion and evolution versus creation dichotomies. First, will begin with an example of the common understanding of the terms, science and evolution. Julian Huxley was the grandson of Thomas Henry Huxley. He was also a leading evolutionary biologist at the centennial celebration of Darwin's famous book, On The Origin of Species in 1959. He offers us his understanding of the term evolution. In quote 2, Julian Huxley writes, in the evolutionary pattern of thought, there is no longer either need or room for the supernatural. In other words, there is no place for God. Huxley then states, the earth was not created, it evolved. Clearly Huxley is trapped in the simple evolution versus creation dichotomy. Continuing, Julian Huxley writes, evolutionary man can no longer take refuge from his loneliness in the arms of a divinized father figure whom he has himself created. Of course this divinized father figure refers to God. Using our science and religion warfare diagram on page one of the handouts. It is obvious that Huxley is entrenched in the evolution versus creation dichotomy. In that, he assumes that there are only two positions on origins, either evolution or creation. In particular, he accepts a common understanding of science in that, it is godless and also a common understanding that evolution is a godless natural process. Also notice what Huxley says here in the last part of quote 2, when he refers to a divinized father figure whom he, that is humankind, has himself created. According to Huxley, humans created God, in other words, God is nothing but an invention of our imagination and just an illusion in our mind. End of episode.