Vladimir Issurin provides a unique perspective into generalized training effects. And he did this in a 2009 paper entitled generalized training effects induced by athletic preparation. So lets go through the description that Issurin provides because they're very useful. Fatigue effects occur during the first few seconds to several minutes of the warm-up. And recall that the word acute means temporary. And we've used acute to describe a couple of different phenomenon. Just to refresh your memory acute has been used in reference to the deliberate overload during one training session. And we also use the word acute in reference to fatigue and in this case acute fatigue indicate that the temporary fatigue accumulation join a training session. So don't get confused, the Issurin uses acute to define the temporary physiological responses during a small segment of the training session and that's the warm up. During the warm up, the nervous and the cardiovascular systems enhance their activity and then necessary substrates and enzymes mobilize. And essence the sympathetic nervous system activates the physiological systems into higher action to maintain homeostasis within its desirable range. Acute effects are all positive but they are no new quantities of tissues involved. The stimulus during a warm up is insufficient to cause a supercompensation effect or any changes in organ structures. It simply causes the nucleus ambiguous to withdraw its brake so the sympathetic nervous system can mobilize necessary resources. The immediate effects are mixed of both positive and negative physiological responses that appear during and immediately after the training session, in response to the training stimulus. During the training session, fatigue effects accumulate due to a combination of reduced neural and metabolic activity. And the sum of the fatigue effects on physiological functioning is negative. And when the training session ends, homeostasis is reestablished and the physiological systems positively adapt during the supercompensation phase. In other words, the general training effects during recovery are all positive. So what about the cumulative, the delayed, the partial and the residual effects? These effects are the true makers, so to speak of the sport-specific phenotype. Any athletes overall improvement and performance. The cumulative effects are really important training effects. Now we're going to have to go back to this chart to understand cumulative effects. You saw this chart when we discussed periodization. Recall that the training year is broken into a hierarchy of training blocks. The first major training block is the macrocycle. And by definition, a macrocycle contains one competition peak. And there are three periods within one macrocycle, each with a specific training objective. The training within each period slides from general to specific. Precompetition is a general prep for competition and main competition is a very specific prep for competition. Mesocycles typically consist of plasters of similar exercises. There are four weeks in length and this is how long it takes for full adaptations of body structures to occur in response to a specific exercise regime. The microcycles are typically seven days in length and then at the very bottom of the hierarchy are the training sessions. Now the cumulative effects are the physiological adaptations that occur over several training sessions. Each training block has a training objective. Take the preparatory period. There are three mesocycles dedicated to the preparatory period. It takes at least four weeks to fully adapt and this is the reason mesocycles are usually four weeks in length. The training sessions in the mesocycles are designed to accomplish some physiological adaptation after four weeks. It could be strength, it could be power, could be overall body conditioning, or any other relevant training goal, depending on where you are in the training year. Physiological structures become stronger and your muscular system becomes more effective, substrates and enzymes are more easily activated etc. The athletes mode of performance abilities and the level of skill, technical and tactical abilities reflect these cumulative adaptations. And at the end of four weeks, training changes to simulate a higher adaptation of the same structures must occur. Okay, so cumulative effects then, are the changes that occur over several training sessions. After four weeks, or 28 days, you expect to see a slight change in performance. And after one macrocycle lasting four to six months, you expect to see a much better performance overall. And after one year, you should see a remarkable improvement in performance. Okay, so what about delayed effects? Issurin use the system to reflect the training effect, that take quiet a bit of time to influence performance. And example of stabilization of motor nerve pathways. It often takes hundreds and hundreds of hours of practice for the motor nerves to adapt to the same electrical stimulation associated with a specific movement. Usually adaptations of nerves result in a thicker myelin wrapping around the nerve that speeds the electrical signal. Once the structural adaptation of a nervous system has stabilized it is really difficult to change. And this explains why an incorrectly learned skill is very hard to correct. Delayed effects then are the long-term effects in response to prolonged and regular training. It can take days, several weeks and often months for these training effects to become noticeable in an athlete's performance. Okay, now we're onto partial effects. These are small adaptations produced by a single training modality, for example a bench press exercise or the barbell squat as I've got illustrated here. It takes more than one exercise to form a useful general training effect To accomplish a training objective. So here's a summary of that it can take hours today for these partial training effects to influence an athletes' performance. The final category of training effects are the Residual effects. These are the training effects left, after a period of detraining or decay. Some training effects take a long time to dissipate and others will dissipate quite quickly. Residual effects refer to how long the improvements in the body's physiology and motorabilities remain. After training ends. Supercompensation can decay within days, and adaptations can decay within two to three weeks. And this becomes an issue when the athlete moves from one training of one ability, one type of training of one ability to the focus on another ability during a training cycle. And we're going to discuss this phenomenon next.