Well, welcome back again for our continuing discussion of extrinsic motivation. In the last session, we talked about the various types of extrinsic motivation that really represent a continuum of autonomy that goes all the way from Amotivation where you're not motivated at all, all the way up to a high degree of autonomy and extrinsic motivation which we call integrated motivation, when you're wholeheartedly behind what you're doing because you see it's strong value in between are a number of ways stations of motivation that are of very quality. Today, we want to look at some examples of how people can be motivated in these different ways and the different kinds of consequences it has for them. To do so, we're going to really run through three research examples of this, and I'm hoping with these examples supposed to show you the importance of internalization in different domains as well as give you some examples of the evidence that support the ideas that go behind this part of self-determination theory. The first example we want to talk about schoolwork, and as we all know all those of us who have been students before know, schoolwork is not only intrinsically motivated, it's not just fun and games, a lot of times it requires discipline and work, and it requires extrinsic motivation therefore. When we ask students, why do you do your homework or why do you do your schoolwork? We will find many different kinds of motives. That's exactly what the investigators Yamauchi and Tanaka whose study I'm going to talk about now did with Japanese elementary school students. They asked him, why is it that you do your schoolwork? Why is it that you do your homework? Then they had them answer in accord with the SDT taxonomy. So, some students said for instance, I do my schoolwork because of external regulation, my parents make me or my parents give me rewards when I do well, would be examples of external regulation. What we can see from Yamauchi and Tanaka's data is that students who were motivated by external regulation show a lot of work avoidance in school and low value for school. They also show a low quality of learning in that they tend to superficially process what they're learning rather than deeply process it. So, we see both the low quality of learning and low enjoyment of learning going on when people are externally regulated. Yamauchi and Tanaka also assessed interjection, and what you see with interjection is interjections associated again with somewhat work avoidance but even more so with what we call performance orientation. In performance orientation, you're trying to show that you can do better than the others and that's kind of your main focus therefore you're interested in grades and outranking the other students, and you can see that's the strongest correlate of interjection because interjection, you're trying to feel good about yourself so you tend to get grade focused. Learning focuses are somehow weaker. Again, we see with interjection moreover superficial processing style unless the processing. On the other hand, when students are more autonomously motivated, when they show identification or intrinsic motivation what we see in Yamauchi and Tanaka's elementary school students in Japan is that now they have a high value for learning, they're not avoiding work, in fact they seek out work in school, and they process what they're learning at a deep level rather than just at a superficial level. So, we can see as you move up this continuum of autonomy, the more autonomous the motivation for the students, the higher quality the work that they're doing and this of course will show up in all kinds of positive outcomes in school, both experiential and in terms of achievement. So, let's move to another domain now just to again show the power of internalization across different behaviors. This is another behavior that I think most of us recognize as often not intrinsically motivated and that's exercise. So, when we exercise of course we're getting fit and we're getting healthy but for many of us exercise is not always the most enjoyable part of our day. Martyn Standage led a set of studies in the UK where he looked at internalization and people's propensity to actually engage in exercise. Here, he asked them before a week of study, why do you exercise? Of course people answered some people saying, I'm externally regulated, I do it because my doctor told me or my spouse told me, some people interjected because I only feel better about myself when I exercise, and still others more identified, I see the value of exercise for health and an oddly from my point of view some people were even intrinsically motivated they said, exercise is fun for me. What Standage did then is, doctor Standage did then is he had people wear what's called an act to heart device. Act a heart devices is a device that you wear that actually really precisely measures the amount of physical activity you engage in. He was particularly interested in whether people over the next period of time engaged in true bouts of exercise, things that had optimal intensity and lasted for enough time to actually be a benefit to the body according to the American Academy of Sports Medicine criteria for this. What you see in this diagram is that, if you were motivated to exercise because of external regulation, that does not predict any positive exercising that went on over the next week according to what shows on the act of heart device, an interjection only weekly and not significantly associated with actually exercising over the next week. But if you had identification for exercise in other words, you really understood its value or you actually had fun exercising this predicted whether you actually exercised over the next week. What you can see at the bottom of this graph therefore, is that the controlled forms of motivation namely external regulation and interjection not predictive of actually exercising. Whereas, autonomous forms identified and intrinsic motivation both predicted actually exercising over the next week. So, you can see that when we're actually predicting behavior, only the autonomous forms of motivation are reliably predicting this somewhat difficult behavior to engage in namely exercise itself. Let me give you one third example, and this comes from another place where often were not the most intrinsically motivated and this is in the workplace. This is an example that comes from Swiss insurance workers and it was a study that was done by Guntert. He was interested particularly in how internalization and types of motivation predict work attitudes and outcomes. In these insurance workers there's about 200 workers that he sampled in this Swiss company. What you can see here on this diagram is, the more autonomous your forms of motivation, the greater your job satisfaction. So, the people who are most satisfied with their work are those who are intrinsically motivated or identified with their work. Those who are not satisfied with their jobs or are those who are externally regulated or interjected. Furthermore, when you look at their intentions to quit, it follows the same pattern which is the more heteroatoms forms of motivation really associated with greater intentions to quit. I think important, one of the reasons I chose this particular study is to show that there are other indicators of quality of behavior that are associated with where you sit on this continuum and see how Guntert chose that when it comes to organizational citizenship to things that show up in organizational altruism, where you would help other workers or you would share knowledge or in just doing your duties at work that would further the organization what he calls civic behaviors here. These are both positively correlated only with the autonomous forms of motivation and not with more controlled forms of motivation. So, if you're a worker and you're mainly there just for the money or you're there because you just feel like you should or have to, you're probably just doing the minimum you can do, you're contributing less to your organization. Whereas those people again who are highly autonomous are really contributing in every way they can do their organizations and this is what makes for I think a healthy organization when motivation is higher. Later we're going to be looking at organizations and particular, in the dynamics of management and pay that predict more autonomous forms of motivation. But here we're only trying to make the point that, the more autonomous your extrinsic motivation, the better your performance and the better your well-being when you're in a workplace, at school place or doing physical exercise. These three examples I think, show just a small sample of many types of research that are done showing the importance of this continuum. So, what we want to talk about next is, in so far as autonomous motivation is really important to have no matter what domain you're acting in, how can guides, teachers, coaches, managers, parents, how can they facilitate more autonomous forms of motivation in those people they'd like to motivate? We'll take that up in our next session.