In the last lecture, we learned about the social image of youth, and the causes of the prejudice from the mainstream society to youths. We also learned about the background and connotation of youth subculture, and the meaning and function of this subculture. We understand the meaning of deviation behavior, Behind those behaviors, there may be good intentions, motives, or needs. We learned further, look at youth situations with crises or so-called high-risk perspectives, and identify the risk factors in their environments. In this lecture, let's take a look at Ecological System Theory, And how we use this ecosystem theory to look at the importance of youth problems, Using this theory as a basis, we will discuss two youth problems, which will also be the main focus of this lecture. these two problems are uneducated or unemployed youth issue and so-called 'Run Away' problem. I will also demonstrate how to combine the ecosystem theory with what we had learned from the previous two lectures and apply in case study and analysis. What is Ecological System Theory? Students who study social work should understand the foundation of Ecological System Theory, This theory was developed by an American psychology experts, Urie Bronfenbrenner, in 1979, At that time, it was considered a very important theory in the field of developmental psychology, It was also translated as background development theory, or Or interpersonal ecological theory. Why is this theory so important in social work? because the key point of this theory is the development and growth of children and youth. are actually results of the interaction of biological factors and environmental factors. This theory emphasizes on integrity, and the interaction between individuals and the environment. We can gain multi-oriented concepts and boarder framework through this complex interaction, and understand the obstacles to personal growth, health, and the function of the whole society. Bronfenbrenner points out that human behavior development is a continuous interacting process between an individual and the environment. That is, we have to comprehend a person's problem that one shows by placing one in the space that he or she lives in. If so, obstacles that the individual encountered are because of problems in his/her daily life instead of the person's morbid, or personality defects. The ecosystem's perspective focuses more on so-called person in the environment and a here-and-now point of view. We focus on and discuss the coordinating and adapting ability between an individual and the environment. This concept, when it was proposed for the first time, thought that growing individuals are influenced directly by four systems in the environment and interaction between the individual and the environment. What are four systems? Let's look at the figure on the screen. I will explain to you. According to this figure, the four systems, from the inside out, is Microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem and macrosystem respectively. Recently, in about 1994, Bronfenbrenner published the fifth system. What is the fifth system? It's the chrono－system. Now, I will explain the definition and meaning of each system one by one. Let's start from the innermost one, microsystem. Microsystem refers to activities, characters, and interpersonal relationships that one experienced in fields which the individual directly contacts with. Microsystem is a system that one can make face-to-face contact, and having a direct impact on him or her. Such as family, school, peer groups, etc. What about mesosystem? It refers to relations between two or more microsystems. For example, individual and family, individual and school, , peer and school, family and school, or school and neighbors. We call them mesosystems. External systems refer to two or more associated systems, The individual did not take the initiative to participate in the period, but what happened here, will affect the environment we're in or being influenced by it. The external system is composed of the individuals' external system, For example, work conditions of parents, is an external system for their children. The community environment system in which children lives in, like the mass media we're exposed to, are all parts of the external system; And the "giant vision system", refers to levels pf the whole culture. , which includes the most range. For example, like community, politic, economic, value and beliefs, etc. The ideology through giant vision system, can affect the standard of individual behavior by small. and can affect the development of a national policy decree by large. Here we want to remind everyone that, when two or a few small systems conflicts in our values, it usually causes some issues in adaptation or difficulties to individuals. Then, what is the " chrono－system "? As in the old ecosystem concept, it has not been mentioned. As what I've said, it was mentioned just recently, especially in cases we are facing. The "chrono－system" refers to consistent changes on personal life events. Like the impact of parental divorce on children I've mentioned in the last lecture. It is usually a process, resulting in change of effects on a single event, and family conflict events effected in this way as well. In such an atmosphere, like experiencing divorce of parents or family conflict events during growth process, can affect the child's emotional development for years in the long run. So the ecosystem, which basically affects the development of the individual, may be positive, and also can be negative, too. And can also bring crisis, risk as well. But we can also learn to maintain the dynamic balance between systems to help individuals on their individual adaption. Most importantly, there exists no system which is completely open or closed, thus, it is a dynamic interaction process. After understanding such a theoretical point of view, We urgently need to treat on an individual's personal needs or problems through theoretical view. Besides treating on youth issues through the view of ecological system, while understanding the youth problem, I would like to remind you, do not ignore that internalizing and externalizing problems may commonly exist simultaneously. Then what are internalizing and externalizing problems? Externalizing problem, means obvious external problems of behavior. The so-called "externalized problem" or "explicit problem" refers to the problem itself, can be very easy to be observed by people. Namely violence, theft, behavior, drug abuse, self-mutilation, etc. And what is "internalizing problem"? internalizing problem, refers that, it is more difficult for us to observe internal worries from the individual's external performance. Such as melancholy mood, anxiety, fear and low self-esteem, etc. It may not be easy to observe from a person's appearance to know if he/she is in trouble, we call it as "internalizing problem". And, through the past 20 years, I have been researching on such issues on adolescences by long. Starting on concerning about youth violence since 1996. I think the world's view of violent youth is very simple. If someone commits a crime, become guilty, then be caught off. Thus, I went to the consortium at that time, that is, so-called bad children's place in Taiwan, we call it consortium. Understand the lives of these violent youths. Understand their inner thought. I found out violent youths are not happy at all. They are not happy for killing, wounding people. On the contrary, they are much low self-esteem. They are troubled by melancholy. While they hurt others, they also hurt themselves at a high proportion. Similarly, among the girls engaged in sex transactions, so-called as sex girl or prostitutes, or whom sex with men and produce valence, they have many trouble. Many people say they spend money without control. They dressed gorgeously. They easily earn money, often hundreds of thousands a month, but they also spend easily. Thus, we say they spend money without control. We think they can not see their own value, and do not cherish their body. But they can not see their future as well. Even nearly one in four sexually traded teenager girls of whom I interviewed, they said before they engage in sex work, they have been raped, that is, their body, has already been violated by others. another example is self-harm. Children suffering from self-injurious behaviors actually want to live, not die They want to survive, but there is just too much pain We think that self-harm is a kind of deviant behavior We try to tell them that body is precious, you should protect it. We told him not to hurt themselves, we think that it was not supposed to do, but after I interviewed these self-harm youth, I found out they just wanted to relieve their pressure. A child told me, when the pain in your heart has been unbearable, who care about the pain of the body? Though these process, I saw the inner pain of violent youth, I saw the wound of prostitute's heart, and I also saw the self-harm children's inner sorrow. That is what I mentioned, the fact of the existence of internalizing and externalizing problem at the same time, When we look at these children, if I do not get the inner view, what I look is still violent youth, sex girl, and self-harm youth, I have no way to see his inner pain and sadness, so this study is not only in Taiwan, in the very very foreign research, it also shows that the existence of coherence in the presence of internal and external deviant behavior, furthermore, it tells us that the external deviant behavior often become the strategy of many children suppressed the negative emotion. They are trying to release stresses, they are trying to resolve problems they faced. They are calling for help, hoping that the adults discover their needs So we should not consider youth problems only from external deviant behaviors we should try to understand the motivations behind their behaviors For example, the so-called "white lies", often exist. and the feature of the coexistence of internal and external problem. When we look at the meaning of the feature of the coexistence of internal and external problem, it can help us to avoid focusing on personal external deviant behavior, while ignoring the sorrow and hardship that we can not see at the surface. The ecosystem also remind us, when we try to help or lead a teenager's behavior, we must think of himself, the environment he lives, and then re-look at the reason why his problem being produced. The problem is a result, often caused by a person and the environment he lives. Among the process of children growing up, it is a dynamic and interactive course, which affects how our kid fall down, get up, walk though, and grow up. As some people walk and fall down, sometimes because we are not careful, sometimes caused by uneven road, sometimes caused by the two reasons above, and soon after, a car went though, and run over us. Finally, we can not get up. Let's think about it: if one day you meet those who tumble in their life, what would you do?