In this section, we will use the ecological systems theory to discuss the following two issues. The first category is the so-called "no Further studies", "unemployed" double lost youths, or in some societies, called them NEET. The second category is runaway youths. Who is the so-called "double loss" youth, or a NEET? Some people may hear this term for the first time. Some may have heard many times. In Taiwan's society, we call them no further studies, no employment. That is to say, after completing the nine-year compulsory education in Taiwan, that is the elementary school and junior high school, they did neither continue to study nor get a job. In some societies, we call him a NEET. NEET is the acronym of not in employment, education or training. Simply to say these people, they are a gang of young people that have nothing to do. The term NEET was first used in the UK. Then gradually be used in other countries. However, NEET is not certainly used to describe the youth. Sometimes it includes teenagers. The definition of NEET's age of each country is not exactly the same. For example, Japanese definitions of the NEET is that after finishing compulsory education, aged between fifteen to thirty-four, no employment, no study, and refused to vocational training unmarried young people. In Hong Kong, they called them hidden youths or double loss youths, which we have just said, no study, lost study, not employment, loss of employment groups. In Taiwan, we called them “wei-li-zsu”(未立足), loser, or Neet. These are terms that we can hear in media reports or in life. In China, they called them “ken-lao-zu“. No matter how to call them, from this appellation, it can be seen that the mainstream society view this group in negative perspective. Because the young people with nothing to do is not acceptable in most cultures. Then I hope everyone to think about why youths do not continue to study or get a job? Why is it that the NEET behavior is a problem in everyone's eyes? "I didn't disturb anyone!" these youths would say. In Taiwan, since almost everyone can be enrolled in high school, many people heard that our admission rate has already exceeded 100%. Why don't you study then? You must not want to improve yourself. If you do not pursue education, have a job then. But why don't you have a job? Apparently you are not trying hard, you are the Snowflake Generation, and you are afraid to face difficulties. So think about it. From the responses you gave to the question, are they mostly about how these kids do not work and do not study? How does the society perceive these people? We have taken some headlines from news reports. You will notice that, for example, in Taiwan, they say, We can see all these description from the media. In Hong Kong, there is a book called "The Hidden Youth and the Internet World - Losing Rights and Searching for Rights"(青年隱蔽與網絡世界-去權與充權). The book points out that just from September to December of 2005 in Hong Kong, almost all of the 180 related new reports are using negative labels to describe these youths. For example, From the news mentioned, it is obvious that we take the youths that do not work or study after finishing the compulsory education as their personal problems. What if we take this issue from the ecosystem's point of view? Can you still recall the diagram of ecological systems from the previous lecture? Let's take a look at the microsystem. If we take a look at this issue from the microsystem's view, we might say that the kid might be unmotivated, lack of skills, and lack of employment competence. He is usually irresponsible. He does not have good communication skills. He is lack of the so called "soft skills" that the workplace needed. Or that the family is unable to discipline him. The school did not any incentive to attract him. The "studying is useless" theory we usually hear. This is the view from the microsystem; how about the mesosystem? For these people, perhaps staying home does no harm. "I just need food." The schools are unable to form a pulling force to attract these youths back to school. Learning is useless to them. However, if we take a look at the exosystem, is our job market friendly to these youths? Is there any discrimination toward them? Has our government made any relative employment policies for this group? These limitations are institutional issues. They do exist, but may not be visible in the exosystem. In the broader macro-system, the cultural value of our society, especially in Chinese society, people think youngsters should keep pursuing education. We affirm the importance of educational background. What about economy? During economic depression, the money reward is low. The service industry prevails. The minimum wage requires youngsters to pay large amounts of force and effort in return of a very low salary. The temptation from border industry, so-called pubs, these non-typical employment chances, some works that are not considered decent, they are high-paid, needn't do a lot of work. We tell youngsters better not take these kinds of jobs. However, when youths compare those jobs with the ones that require high labor with low-paid, they may think,"Why not?" If the problem is viewed from the perspective of ecological systems, we should not regard the issue of "no further studies, no employment" as a consequence of a person's laziness. To some kids, some of them I have interviewed in person, learning is a luxury. There are many kids whose families cannot afford the tuition fee of high school or further education. Some people may argue that the tuition fee is low in Taiwan. There is student loan as well. get a loan to study, just pay back after they start work. But have you think about that? When a 15-year-old child apply for a loan, After the student leaves school at eighteen, he starts to have debt. How can he use the low payment in the future to gradually pay the high student loan back? In Taiwan society, more poor children study at so-called private school, Lacking the subsidies from the government, they have to afford higher tuition fees and miscellaneous fees so can they receive the education. Thus, learning is very expensive for them. However, school isn't the only place where we can learn. I believe that in our society we always say that implementation at workplace triumph theory at school. We wish to learn practical skills and correct attitude from the workplace. And yet, the limitation and exploitation at the workplace are also phenomena that we cannot ignore. In addition to the low wages which I just mentioned, there is no welfare among most of these jobs. What worse, youths don't know about their rights, especially the right about labor. In Taiwan, for instance, it is legal to work at the age of 15. We call them child laborer, and they can only work during particular periods of time. When they are 16, they are equal to regular laborer, in other words, a 16-year-old youth, a 20-year-old teenager, and a 45-year-old man, they all share the same labor right. Yet, how many youths know they have these rights? Having no awareness of their own rights, the exploitation of the employers becomes a matter of course. For the same reason, youths do not know how to claim for their own legal protection when they were exploited. Therefore, if we discuss the issue of unemployed and without further study from the ecosystem's point of view. What I wish you to think is how to solve these issues that cannot be ignored. We cannot only focus on an individual, and we cannot only attribute the problems to that individual. We must think from different perspectives instead of accusing on an individual, or oversimplify the cause of a problem. From the ecosystem's point of view, changes occur when we come into a person's need. Environment and system committed on the reformation of the external environment and macro-system. Although it is more difficult to alter the environment than to an individual. problems that aren't simply caused by an individual won't be solved as long as the environment and system remain the same. We can only save a child at a time if such issue remains. We aren't able to adjust the whole, not to mention dealing with the impact that the surroundings have done to people and the problems coming along. For youths, it will be a huge challenge for them to reach maturity if the environment does not improve.