Hello, everyone. Welcome to our course. My name is Xiaoling Yuan, from school of nursing, Shanghai JiaoTong University. Today, we’ll spend some time to discuss types of classical traditional Eastern exercises. Actually, many traditional Eastern exercises are mind–Body Therapies as well. So, through the following 40 mins study, we will have a general look at these 3 types of amazing exercises which are also medical therapies. We’ll give you a general idea of mind-body therapies at first, and then talk about some cases of Yoga, Tai Chi and Qigong Practice on the people of health, with chronic diseases and with cancers. After all, we will share some academic articles of systematic reviews which merged different studies and analyzed the total effects of the exercise interventions. So first, let’s have a general look at the mind-body therapy. At the beginning, what is mind-body therapy? Mind–Body Therapy, like the other Therapies, changes the physiology and the psychology of the user. For self-care, it offers an immediate and long-term approach to the mental, physical, and emotional balance we all need, seek, and find so elusive. Mind–Body Therapy also addresses some of the social determinants of health, like the ways in which emotional, mental, social, spiritual, experiential, and behavioral factors can directly affect health. We learn how thoughts, feelings, beliefs, and attitudes can positively or negatively affect our biological and psychological functioning. Mind-body therapies have a holistic approach toward health and care, as an interaction between mind, body, and spirit. Mind–body therapies also comprise a distinct category of complementary medicine as delineated by the U.S. National Center for Complementary or Alternative Medicine. There is growing interest in mind–body therapies as adjuncts to mainstream cancer treatment, and an increasing number of patients turn to these interventions for the control of chronic diseases and cancer related symptoms. Increased research funding has enabled many such therapies to be evaluated for their efficacy, including studies of mind–body therapies to reduce pain, anxiety, insomnia, fatigue, and treatment-related nauseas, hot flashes, and improved mood. Traditional medical management of these symptoms typically involves pharmacological treatments, such as analgesics , stimulants, or sedatives. However, these medications may have unacceptable side effects or worsen some symptoms. For example, medication for pain may worsen fatigue or sleep. In contrast, mind–body therapies have few or even no negative side effects and may even improve symptoms in addition to the target symptom. For example, mind–body therapies provided for pain relief may also reduce anxiety and facilitate relaxation. Mind-body therapies include techniques and treatments that link physical health with psychological and spiritual wellness. Think of it as your immune system “eavesdropping”on your internal, or psychological, environment. When your mind and spirit are healthy, your energy can be directed toward physical healing and recovery. Mind–body therapies include relaxation therapies, biofeedback, meditation and hypnosis， yoga, music therapy, tai chi, and qigong. Although studies are not always methodologically sound and results mixed, a growing number of well-designed studies provide convincing evidence that mind–body therapies are beneficial adjuncts to various treatment. The evidence is sufficient to recommend further investigation and adoption of these techniques in mainstream chronic disease management and oncology care. The practice of Yoga, an ancient Eastern tradition, encompasses various domains including ethical disciplines, physical postures, and spiritual practices with the overall goal of uniting mind and body. It is a gentle exercise that incorporates a variety of practices, including postures or stretches, breathing exercises, and meditation. It is estimated that fifteen million adults have used yoga in their lifetime, with almost half specifically using yoga to manage a health condition. Yoga may be helpful for a variety of health conditions including asthma back pain, insomnia, anxiety, and depression. Overall improvements were seen in randomized clinical trials of yoga on measure of sleep, quality of life, and levels of stress. Studies of higher quality with controlled conditions are needed in this area to support the preliminary positive feedback of yoga as an adjunct intervention. According to a recent review of scientific studies on Healthline.com, yoga has been shown to: Reduce cortisol the primary stress hormone Reduce anxiety, depression and PTSD symptoms Reduce chronic pain for osteoarthritis and other joint conditions Improve breathing by increasing capacity as well as reducing asthmatic symptoms Increase strength, endurance, flexibility and balance. The practice of Qigong is a system of healing and energy medicine from China which involves using breathing techniques, gentle movement, and meditation to cleanse， strengthen, and circulate life energy. It promotes the circulation of “qi” or the life force within the body. Qi Gong (pronounced CHEE-GONG) can be traced back 4,000 years to ancient China. "Qi" is simply the Chinese word for energy, and "Gong" means skill that is cultivated through steady practice. So, put together, "Qi Gong" means "cultivating the body's vital energy," and then using it to heal and strengthen every system throughout the body. Qi Gong is catching on fast with a large number of Americans. According to the Center for Disease Control and National Institutes of Health, there were over 600,000 Americans regularly practicing Qi Gong. That is a 16% increase from just six years earlier. In fact, American adults are using complimentary and alternative medicines in greater numbers than ever before and for a wide variety of conditions, including: Back pain ,Neck pain ,Joint pain ,Arthritis ,Anxiety ,Insomnia ,Stress. Tai Chi is an ancient Chinese martial art, that involves slow, gentle movements, rhythmic breathing and concentration. There are many styles and forms of tai chi, the major ones being Chen, Yang, Wu, and Sun. Each style has its own features, but all styles share the same essential principles. The essential principles include mind integrated with the body; control of movements and breathing; generating internal energy, mindfulness, song (loosening 松) and jing (serenity 静). The ultimate purpose of tai chi is cultivate the qi or life energy within us to flow smoothly and powerfully throughout the body. Total harmony of the inner and outer self comes from the integration of mind and body, empowered through healthy qi through the practice of tai chi. Tai Chi for Health programs are modernized tai chi incorporating medical science to deliver health benefits more quickly. Clinical trials suggest that Tai Chi improves posture, balance, flexibility, muscle mass and tone, stamina, and strength in adults. Muscle strength is important for supporting and protecting joints and is essential for normal physical function. Flexibility exercises enable people to move more easily, and facilitate circulation of body fluid and blood, which enhance healing. Fitness is important for overall functioning of the heart, lungs, and muscles. In addition to these components, tai chi movements emphasize weight transference to improve balance and prevent falls. Now, you are supposed to have a basic concept of the body-mind therapy. From next class we will focus on three of the classic therapies, yoga, qigong and tai chi.