Welcome back. Now in this session, we look at the crucial role that the data layer is playing in the transition to Smart Cities. And we do this in three steps, first, I will talk about why the data layer is so crucial. Then, I will try to identify what the data layer is exactly about. And thirdly, we will raise a series of questions that all need to be addressed, if we want to make the transition to Smart Cities a success. Getting the data layer, the digital layer right, is an important precondition for performing smart city services. And we have seen that in the previous session, when Muhammad talked about path dependencies. So graphically, this can be represented something like this. Over time services are being rolled out, which contribute to more performing urban infrastructure systems. And getting the data layer right, is a precondition for having the services function, and being able to be rolled out. So this is a typical path dependency problem. Now, [COUGH] what is this data or digital layer, exactly? In the first block, you remember when we talked about networks, we identified three layers. We had a physical telecommunication infrastructure, wired or wireless. Then we had networks, typically the Internet, and then we had the identification and exchange of data, typically the World Wide Web. Now, [COUGH] in the context of a Smart City, what is particularly important for the data layer, is this connection of the devices to each other, the Internet of Things, as we have also said. So this requires technical interoperability and standards so that, actually, all the data generating devices can be connected to each other. And the second element that is crucial for this digital or data layer, is the fact that the data can be identified, and accessed, and exchanged as a result of that. And this is mainly a question of norms and regulation, whereby access rules are defined, locations are identified, and accessibility is granted. Now from here, we can raise a series of questions, those are all the questions that are crucial for the digital layer to function properly. So let's start with the first question. I already mentioned before, it's this question of standards. It is not, the digital layer cannot function properly if the devices that generate the data cannot be connected to each other, and this is typically a question of standards. Then the second question, is a question of ownership of the data. This is a question that somehow need to be decided so that the data layer can function properly. Who owns the data? Is it the telecom operator that transports them? Is it the owner of the devices that generates them? Is it the individual from whose house this data actually come? Is it the one who buys the data? So this question of ownership, also needs to be clarified for the data layer to function properly. The third question, is the question of accessibility of data. [COUGH] What good is it to have data if they are not accessible? And, [COUGH] who has access to this data? Are these data openly accessible, something that today is called open data. Are they restricted to some users? Are they only they only accessible to the highest bidder? Are just accessible to the ones who have generated it, and to whom he wants to sell it? So these are the kind of questions that also need to be decided. The fourth question is a standard question, but is the question about the security, and the privacy of the data. If data are not secure, and if privacy is not guaranteed, then the data layer may simply not function. The fifth question is the one about the pricing of the data. Now, data generation has a price, those are devices, there is a cost. The question is what is the price of the data? Should they be given for free, and in which case who pays actually the real cost the data have? Maybe it's the customers who give their own data and somebody makes money with them. So it’s really a matter of, what is a good pricing policy about data? These questions have to be clarified as well. And then, the sixth question is about the reliability of data. What good is it to have data, if they are not reliable? If you can not rely upon them to provide good services, if they are wrong, false, manipulated, questions like this. And then the seventh question, maybe a question, maybe a little bit more theoretical question, but it's the question about the location of the data. Where are these data platforms? Are they within the firms? Are they within the city? Are they in a country? Are they in the global cloud? [COUGH] And this is a technical question, and economic question, but can also be a political question. Okay, so basically we have two issues here, one is an issue of standards, and ideally the standards are set by the industry. But if the industry is not capable of setting the standards, then it may also become a regulatory question. Like most of the other questions are actually regulatory questions. Those are decisions that need to be made about the ownership, about the privacy, about the location. And that is actually regulation that decides on these things. So in this session, we saw why the data layer is so crucial, what it is about, and the main questions that you need to ask to get the data layer right. Stay tuned.