Human beings rarely react well to small, isolated environments. We like to have space to move around and form large social networks for support. However, the environment of a space station is not only challenging for our eyes and muscles, but also our minds. A space station or shuttle is anything but spacious. Quite literally a metal tube or a series of metal tubes with exposed wires. Modern space vehicles do not resemble Star Wars or Star Trek imaginations. The machinery is constantly humming, making the insides quite noisy. Without gravity, showers, haircuts, and sleeping become difficult tasks. During a trip through space, astronauts need to maintain tight schedules for sleeping, running scientific experiments and as we discussed earlier, two hours of daily exercise. Both physically and logistically, the life of an astronaut is confined. Depending on the mission, astronauts may also face periods of isolation. For the International Space Station, astronauts can have video calls with people on earth because radio waves used for satellite communications can only travel up to the speed of light. For longer trips, there'll be increased delays in communication as one moves away from Earth. On the moon, there is a one-way delay of 1.3 seconds. On Mars, because Earth and Mars are both rotating around the sun, delays can range from three minutes to 22 minutes. This makes it increasingly hard to communicate with families, friends, and ground control. Spaceships travel much slower than the speed of light, meaning that the one-way trip to Mars would take at least six months. During this whole time, astronauts will repeatedly need to be on their own to run scientific experiments, diagnostic tests, and exercise. This means that feelings of isolation and confinement can grow over time. If one would hope that the view of space makes it exciting because of the vacuum of space on the other side, windows are limited in size and number. For astronauts on the International Space Station, 254 miles above earth, they will always have a beautiful view of the planet. But on a trip to Mars, unless the viewer is located in the shadow of a planet or moon to block the light of the sun, the distance stars become impossible to see, and the background becomes a monotonous void. This void could even serve as a reminder of how far they are from home and the dangers involved in a trip to Mars. These stressors together could contribute to the development of psychological issues. Chiefly, depression is a concern for a deep space mission. When first adjusting to the novel environment of space, depression may present differently in different people. It can involve low mood, sadness, or anger, trouble concentrating, feelings of anxiety, sleep and diet issues, or potentially thoughts of suicide and self-harm. If these symptoms persist for more than two weeks, a person is said to suffer from major depressive disorder. Anxiety may present as a symptom in other disorders or exist on its own, characterized by extreme levels of worry, racing thoughts, and high heart rates, the reality of flying through space could trigger these symptoms. To avoid these psychological issues, astronauts are selected in part based on their personalities. Personality describes aspects of a person that are stable across time and between circumstances. Similar to Air Force pilot selection criteria, astronauts with high levels of to personality traits, instrumentality and expressively are highly desired. Instrumentality describes an individual's ability to work well, even under pressure, follow directions, and to an extent, enjoy his or her work. Expressivity describes an individual's ability to communicate and work well with a team, share his or her feelings to an appropriate level and form emotional connections with other crew members. Individuals high in these traits are likely to be able to complete the mission and work well with several other crew members in a confined environment. Oddly enough, these personality traits may also mean that astronauts suffering from a psychological disorder, will focus on the symptoms rather than realizing they are suffering from depression. For example, an astronaut may say she is not hungry and not sleeping well focusing on the symptoms rather than the underlying problem. It is therefore the job of the crew surgeon, whether on Earth or onboard the mission, to know the crew before the mission begins, a crew surgeon will get to know the personality, habits, and even family of an astronaut to best advocate for the patient. Then, as an astronaut leaves Earth and communications become increasingly difficult, a crew surgeon will have to rely on an already established trust to best understand how the stressors of space affect the astronauts. Additionally, before each mission, teams train and work together to ensure compatibility of personality, habits, and communication styles. A bond is important for encouraging astronauts to watch out for each other and work together for their prologue missions into outer space.