Welcome to this module on the Future Use and Role of Standards. But first, let us get back to the goals we were trying to achieve with this course. The last bullet on the goal slide today is on learning how and in what way standards will play a role in future developments. Okay. Earlier in the course, we were talking about that standards where in between on the one hand technology, on the other hand law. So, they are interfacing so to say technology with the law and we will work a bit on that on this module. First, just a little bit of repetition. On the global scale, we have the United Nations, the International Telecommunications Union, and the International Organization for Standardization and the regional level, the European Union, and as a consortium, we will deal a bit with IEEE. Each of these organizations will play a role in this module. First, let us see how does the sustainable development goals of the United Nations have been devised to see undeveloped, to see our world to be a better place in 2030 and each of these goals, they want to achieve a better world by better health for people, better connectivity on the Internet, for better housing, and things like that. Interesting is here, goal number 17 which is how different types of international organizations have to work together to achieve these goals. To be able to make them comparable whether one goal is indeed getting better over five or 10 years, and the other one, we need a dataset to be able to device all these things. So, in 2015 and '16, the United Nations met to see what it was possible to devise and develop a framework to gather in a sufficient and good way a data from all over the world. So, in 2016, they have managed to come up with a document of more than 60 pages entailing all types of different data points that have to be collected all over the world. This is the document and you can of course for yourself download it from the UN and ITU site. When we look at it, when we look at goal number 17, for instance, you see here a few goals on 17, namely the issue of technology. One of the data points, they are trying to go to collect for all countries in the world is the fact that they want to know and have data on how Internet connection is being realized, and at what speeds, but also what number of inhabitants are connected to the Internet. At the regional level, standards now in the European Union are being looked upon as enabling the cross-border trade and cross-border movement of people, and things like that. So, standards should be enabling that border-less work around the European Union, around the 28, 27 countries. It's also that the old way of working with standards was not sufficient enough anymore because the transparency was not high enough and the knowledgeability also was not high enough. So, in 2012, the European Union decided to reform the standardization approach towards how laws and regulations need to incorporate standards. So, the new reform or the reform and a new approach towards the standards that needed to be incorporated is that there is needs to be more knowledgeable and that an organization can really become part of the standardization developments. When you see in the background for the European Union because we are a group of countries. Each country has a different culture, has a different system of lawmaking, so what for the European Union is very important is to make standards to have technological regulations, so to speak, that can be put to work in each country differently. So, that it really makes cooperation over borders a lot easier. For that reason, the European Union has for standards, a way of approaching it in such a way that the technical rules lead to the standards, lead to less rules in the sense of less laws that have to be abided upon and that have to be implemented. So, standardization and European Union view is also very much helpful towards making less rules and regulation. At the global level again, but I'm from the professional organization we have talked about IEEE, they also start to develop a coherent approach towards in what way standards need to be implemented and thought of. So, when you look at the activities, they have been developing over the last few years. You can see that the industry activities and the like are in many fields on educational things, on how brain and AI approaches need to be done, and things like that. So, in that sense, also IEEE is very much involved in trying to look at the future and to see in what way standards could play a role in making a better world. This module contains three more lectures and one of them will deal with privacy, not from a content point of view, but more of how our different organizations standardization organization dealing with the fact that privacy needs to be standardized also, not only rules and laws will help, but also standards we will need. We will also look at how connected cars came into being and how the standards play a role there, and very exciting, how artificial intelligence is going to be used, of course we are using that already, but we need to be sure that they are knowledgeable, that we can know what kind of procedures and algorithms are being used. That can be known by making standards, so that we can know what the different processes and different AI applications is really dealing with. Okay. So, the goal for this module and this lecture is to see and learn a bit about what the role will be for standards in the future. The next lecture will deal with privacy. Thank you very much for your attention and I hope to see you back in the next lecture.