In Session nine, I have really one fairly simple, but hard to implement point. My colleague Arie and I, and some partners work with companies, organizations on creativity, on making them more innovative. And our message to them is normally, when consultants work with organizations on innovation they talk to the CEO, they talk to the VPs, senior management and the approach is one of top down programs to make the organization more innovative. Our message to organizations is we think that part of the job description of every single person in your organization, including those who run the warehouse or work in the warehouse or wrap packages or sweep the floor. We think part of a job description of everybody should be to come up with new and better ways to do their jobs and the jobs of others. Make creativity organization wide from bottom all the way up, bottom up rather than top down. So this is a crucial point about creativity. It's not just about gadgets, it's not just about inventing new and improved products or services. It's about every single thing that we do as part of our daily lives. Everything we do in our job in the organization. Customer service, supply chain management, advertising, selling, everything. Marketing, not just features on the product. Innovate everywhere, and everything. So always it begins with a need. We need to keep focused on that. We're trying to meet real needs. But some of the needs are very tacit, very hidden, unspoken, even unrecognized by people until we supply a solution to their need. We can innovate and create new things by enabling relationships. Facebook is a great company that did that, almost by accident. Facebook was started by Mark Zuckerberg as a student at Harvard. And what he wanted to do was to create, basically an online yearbook for his class. And that turned out to be popular, and other classes wanted to do the same at Harvard, and then at other schools. And in no time, you have the social network Facebook conquering the world. Change the business design. How do you do business? Dell Computer Company, was once the world's biggest computer company. They had no real new, innovative, creative products. They made good computers, but they had a different way of selling them and making them. They made them by having people order them directly and basically design their own computer by phone, by fax, later by Internet. They changed the business design to what's called a direct sale model. And that will create a great company from basically one person, Michael Dell, building computers himself at his home in Austin, Texas. Of course, creative goods and services, but also provide people with know how and insight. Coursera which is offering my course, our course Coursera is providing know how for millions of people. Through its massive online open courses. Magnify a new values. Young people want to be connected and smartphones enable us on a constant connection. Magnify new values. A smartphone is not just a product, it's actually something that helps people be connected. And smart cell phone companies emphasize not the commodity, the hardware, they emphasize the value that the smartphone creates. Create new standards. Create new partnerships. Bring people together. Increase connectivity. Create remarkable performance. Build a whole new ecosystem. Intel innovated its products by creating the Centrino. And the Centrino was a microprocessor and a chipset that lowered power consumption, heat, and increased battery life. And that enabled people to walk around with their laptops, and do their email, and connect with the world. But to do that, you needed Wi-Fi and Hotspots. And so Intel, together with Starbucks and others, had to create Hotspots. So that the new laptops with the Centrino chipsets would be more valuable, would be actually useful. They weren't much use unless you could do email in a Starbucks cafe and that meant building and ecosystem. Create a new value proposition. How are you creating value? Some great services actually create a new experience. A great Coursera course is not just a course. It's a great new learning experience and if it's truly good. It is transformative, it transforms the lives of people who take the course. I guess that's kind of our goal. Story telling, great creative ideas tell stories. Sell new skills, [COUGH] create insight, enable new technologies. Combine and recombine knowledge. Remove barriers to participation. Online courses enable students in remote areas to study when otherwise they perhaps couldn't afford to do so. So the point here in this session nine, next to last session for week two, the point is really simple. If you're a truly creative person, if you truly want to change the world by discovering new ideas, don't limit yourself with very narrow borders. Expand the borders of creativity by making creativity your job definition in every single thing that you do. Not just in the products that you work on making and selling or the services. But in the processes, the way the products are produced, sold, marketed, packaged, delivered, explained, advertised. Make creativity a part of every single thing that you do in your life. [COUGH] And every single thing in which you try to create value for other people as they live their own lives. And that ends session number nine. We have one more session that we'll conclude and wrap-up week two of our course.