[MUSIC] This is the tenth and last lesson and the subject of this lesson, the last one, is work hard. It sounds so obvious, but it's not and we need to explore what does it exactly mean, work hard? Work hard, work smart, so we're talking with a master innovator about his life lessons, hard work related to innovation. And Duddy, I want to talk to you about comfort and being comfortable. So comfort is defined as a state of ease or freedom from pain or constraint. We all want to be comfortable. Purpose of modern life, a lot of it seems to be to free us from any discomfort, from pain, from hunger, from thirst. Whenever more than five minutes away from fast food, frustration, we work hard to keep our children from being frustrated. Sometimes we lower the bar, to avoid frustration. But the point I want to make is, [COUGH] very often, the things that create tremendous value, come from discomfort, rather than comfort. Creative people are uncomfortable with some things that they see. They can't tolerate that, and they want to come up with something better. And they're willing to work very hard, and go through frustration. And sometimes invest years of their life to deal with things that make them feel uncomfortable. I have a friend, Dadi, who worked for 16 years to develop something very difficult. An ultrasound device that can dissolve brain tumors without an incision 16 years. Really difficult task, and he succeeded. And the end then is creating immense value for people with brain tumors and illnesses. SO, my question is, when our natural tendency is to be comfortable, how do you take an innovation team and challenge them to be uncomfortable. Uncomfortable well about ideas and especially. Endure the discomfort of really long hard hours working on really, really hard projects that are sometimes frustrating and very often have failures, at least along the way toward ultimate success. How do we deal with that? >> Let me first disagree with you. >> Good. >> That people want comfort. >> Okay. >> It's one of the [INAUDIBLE] but if that's the case how you could explain all kinds of people using extreme sports, how do you explain people like to innovate? So human beings like being comfortable, but if they're too comfortable they're dissatisfied because they want challenges. >> How do you explain marathon runners? >> Yes, so people take all kind of challenges. >> Yeah. >> Some people do it in extreme sports, some do it by looking at art and going to places, some people do it by debating or doing politics, or what have you. Some people do it by innovating. Taking extra challenge by inventing something new that will help the world like your friend about doing all these miracles about brain tumors. And I think people love challenges and people to create or. Meet the challenges, are willing to a very much of discomfort. You know, if you're responsible to, and people love to really win the games, think of the odds. If you are scared, you want to jump over a big wall, just to show that you are not scared. If you want to invent something new, the message over here that just, it takes a lot of work, a lot of effort to be able to achieve all these wonderful things. It doesn't matter if it is art, if it's in scientific innovation, it's in. You don't have someone ride the Tour de France result, training very hard beforehand. Just impossible. >> Okay. So, there's a book that I really like, by Malcolm Gladwell, he's a favorite author. The book is called Outliers The Story of Success. And he tries to deal with the question how come some people are really successful. He's boiled it down to basically one short answer. He calls it the 10,000 hour rule. It takes 10,000 hours of practise for an individual to really. Master a field. Take The Beatles, we think The Beatles were instant success. They played for years in small clubs, and for at least five years. And played 1200 times in small clubs with small audiences before they really, really got it right. So what's your own experience study With this 10,000-hour rule. What about yourself? Did you invest 10,000 hours in order to become a successful master innovator? By the way, 10,000 hours is about three years including Saturdays and Sundays of really Hard work. What do you have to say about that? >> I'm not probably as good as the Beatles. I had to spend more. You definitely, nothing comes, every knowledge, every mastering of any discipline which is complex and we talk about complexity and simplicity. This is all kind of tough science, tough technology. >> In order to muster anything for me, computer science, computer architecture, semiconductors, just all big disciplines that requires a lot of knowledge and a lot of experience. One of the things that this book is how you experience and play with this stuff until you get to the level of experience that you move it from thinking versus to >> The the gut feel of the expert. And the gut feel of the expert takes a lot of time. It's a lot of studying. It's a lot of learning. It's a lot of reading. It's a lot of talking to people, talking to conferences is important because you want to get the knowledge of other people and talk to them, and spend the time, the trial and error. You try things and you fail. And you try again. And you succeed more. I think this all takes a lot of time, nothing happens like that. And you don't think that whatever the Michael Jordan, it takes a lot of training to do all the tricks and all the maneuvers that he could do. He didn't do it just because he thought about it. >> Yes. So I've heard it Described in this way Duddy, that you need to become a person who is shaped like a t. And the idea here is that in some field, at least one field, you need to be really really expert. Really deep. >> For example, in your case, semiconductors and the science of semiconductors, the physics of semiconductors. But also to be an innovator you need to have that broad knowledge of a lot of different things, because you never know what you're going to need when you work on an innovative project. What's your own experience with T-shaped people and how you become a t-shaped person. >> A t is a bit misleading. Sometimes you have more legs. Sometimes you have to have a thicker, it depends what you do. >> Right. >> If you want to be an expert on something, of course you have to be deep and narrow. The one thing is clear. You have to have a broad knowledge of many things because in order to be an innovator you need to be open to a lot of ideas. In many cases, you've seen innovation it comes from using four different disciplines. Because we just stick into one discipline and I bet your friend have to understand many things, not just the brain. So you probably the next part on the brain. But if you all think it has to do with all kind of other measurements and. And other of medicine other than the brain. >> Yes. >> If we had to understand all that could not have even thought about stuff. And then, he could either get an expert on that. Or study himself to get an expert on another field. Does not ask me about big integrators, the conductors of orchestras are good at it. They are very good at everything they are not necessarily an expert about any, any kind of the you may not be as good as the. But you need to understand how he is an expert of. How does have to be sound. What the right interpretation of things. This is the breadth helps. So if you want to be an innovator you need to have the breadth because you have to integrate a lot of prospects. There are at least one or two disciplines you have to understand extremely deep because this the lever by which the point by which you make the deliver work. And you're applying all this depth in to creating something unique that other people are ought to do.