So, when we move to the Heavyweight Team, this one takes a less incremental approach to that base functional design. We still have a Project Manager, okay. We'll start there and describing it right. And again, this is true becomes truly across functional team as such. But we have that project manager, and that project manager is what they call a Heavyweight Project Manager. That means that there are more senior, they have more clout, they have more influence. The idea is that they can go toe-to-toe with one of the with the functional heads of the silos there, and not just be overwhelmed. Right? That's the idea. Now also, that project manager has direct access to and primary responsibility for all the people involved in the project. So that's indicated by that dashed line around the different teams. So, to accommodate that kind of a view, this is where we make a cross-functional. We change the team members roles. We have core team members in each function, who become the members of the heavyweight team. Right? They're dedicated to this team. They'll be a marketing person, a manufacturing person, an engineering person, perhaps, a financial or accounting person that are dedicated to this team. They're co-located. So, the cross-functional element of the team becomes much more real. Now the functional managers are still responsible for a longer-term career development evaluation and performance appraisal in general. But the heavyweight project manager often has some say in the performance evaluation relative to the product or process, or service development effort. So, we changed the way that the team members exist within the team. And we again, continue with this theme this is more than an incremental change. We change what the team is responsible for. Instead of there being teams in each function that are responsible for their own components of the effort, that the core team takes on full ownership for bringing the product or service from concept to market. That is the functional managers are responsible for what the team delivers. That team is responsible for it. And so, as a result, we're also changing who the team is accountable to. It's not accountable to each of the individual functional managers, it's accountable to senior management in general. And so, this is quite a major change, right? For things we've got a project manager who is unusually senior. We've got team members who are dedicated from different functions who are dedicated this team. The team is responsible for more than it was before. It's responsible for the whole thing, and the team becomes accountable to senior management as a whole. Now, this can bring some really major advantages. Because the team takes ownership of, and has high commitment to the project. This team, if you're on the core team, this is what you're doing. You might not be assigned as your only project to this, but typically, we want to see 70% kind of commitment on the core-team. So this is really the most important thing you're doing right now. You begin to identify with the project. And so there's high integrity, and integration of this development effort. Because you're working all the time with people across the functions. There's actually cross-functional problem solving, but because we're working within the team rather than in our silos, we have a much better chance of coming up with creative solutions that break the inertia that we've had before of doing something that's really quite new. So for example, Black & Decker use this when they wanted to really make a major change in their electric tools. The example the Clark and we'll write feature is one at Motorola, where they developed an entirely new production process for pagers, these are the kinds of things that you can do with a heavyweight team. Nevertheless, and probably no surprise, this is not something without its challenges and potential problems. You see this is complicated, right? It's overlaying the functional organization. And so, it may conflict with a functional organization. You are going to have conflict between the functional managers, and the team. So we're going to have to have that heavyweight project manager who is good at communication and conflict resolution, and who has that credibility. It may not end up drawing on the full functional expertise, that the organization has because there's going to be a tendency to keep things within the team, right? Since that team has a real sense of being a team to it, we may shortchange ourselves. This, I'd say a more tactical problem though. I'd say the really important ones are that it really raises questions about senior management's influence and control. Right? Because imagine you're the vice president of engineering and you've got this team working on something that can be very important to the firm. Yet, you don't have direct control over that team. You're engineering person, the senior engineering person on that team is really reporting to the project manager of the team, where it comes to decisions about that project. So there's real questions about senior management's influence and control. The second thing is for the team members, this is a really new role, right? The approach that you have to take to your work is not the narrow functional approach but a much broader one. And this is a big challenge. So these last two areas are the areas where organizations have tend to have more trouble with heavyweight teams as they introduce them. And what we're actually going to do is we're going to come back in that in the video that follows this one. And go into those issues in more depth. But for now, I think a sense of what this heavyweight cross-functional team looks like, and why it has promise. Now, the fourth design that we see organizations taking is one that should be familiar. This is the autonomous in Clark and Wheelwrights research, they call it the Autonomous Team. Look at it on this diagram, right? We take people out of the functional organizations, we formally assign them and dedicate them and co-located them with the project team. The project leader is the sole evaluator of team members contributions, they're responsible for taking the idea from concept to hit the market properly, right? And so you should be saying to yourself for weight. This is just the independent organization that we've talked about in previous modules. And in fact, that's how I would look at it, right? We might call it a Tiger team, right? Or we call it an ambidextrous organizational unit whatever it is, right? The important point is that it's independent of the functional organization. It's focused around this particular business. Now, we could get into the details about that, right? This the team might be different than an organization that is constituted almost as a as a separate division. But I think we're splitting hairs there, and that isn't the real focus. The real focus here is going to be on that heavyweight team. So, just to close it out though, the findings in the team oriented research, Clark and Wheelwrights research is that this separated autonomous team does provide focus everything people do on the team is focused on the project's success. It leads to speed, actually cross-functional integration team members are fully accountable for the project's results. It breaks with inertia because you can see that they're in essence is a clean sheet of paper. The team members aren't really required to follow existing practices, and procedures because they've been pulled out of the functional organization. And they're not responsible to it almost in any way, while they're on this team. But we see the same issues that maybe our underweighted in some of the discussions we've had before about difficulty and integration. Clark and Wheelwright found managers saying that these teams are very difficult to control that they're uncomfortable with the team's autonomy that it duplicates resources, and has trouble drawing on the organization's capabilities. So, while it's powerful, right? It's not for every case. And in fact, Clark and Wheelwrights findings are not particularly positive about this approach. That's why they feature the heavyweight project team. So now, we've covered four core team designs, ranging from the classic functional team design to what I would think of as the incremental change to that the lightweight team, or the functional team with project managers to a true cross-functional team what we're talking about as a heavyweight team. And finally, an autonomous team which can move towards being an independent organization. The point of this video is to bring those out, and to talk about their advantage what they are their advantages, and their disadvantages. What we're ready to do now is to delve more deeply into that cross-functional heavyweight team design, and to talk more about what is really needed to make it work. The big ideas being a change in mindset among the team leaders, and a similar change in mindset and arrangements with the team and senior management. Now, these are the topics of the next video. And I actually suggest that if you can you move on to it right now, or soon because I'll be referring back to what I've just discussed more frequently than I usually do these two videos will be closely connected. See you next time.