[MUSIC] So the goal of this session is to learn how to define a typology of societies based on the age structure of the population. And in the next 10 minutes, we will see how to illustrates different types of societies that can be classified as stocks or as funds. And we do this using two case studies of informal settlements in South Africa and in Brazil So the first thing to note is that the time use of society is closely connected to the structure of the population. So in the hypothetical example that we have in this slide, this is a society of 100 individuals and they are divided by different age groups. So in our society we have in this case, 50% of the population is in working age. And what we do is to look at how different age groups use their time. So we have people above 65 years old spend most half of their time in physiological overhead. And the other half is spent in unpaid work and leisure. The people comprise between 65 years old and 16 years old are considered working population. And so in this case about 20% of their time is devoted to paid work. And for the people that are younger than 16 years old, again the time is allocated either to physiological overhead or unpaid work and leisure. So what we have is that of the societal level in total only 10% of the time is devoted to paid work. The time calculation is done by considering that each person has 24 hours a day multiplied by 365 days per year. So we have a total of 8,760 hours per year per person. So in a society of 100 people that would be 876,000 hours per year in the society. And if 10% of tax is devoted to paid work, we have a total of 8,760 hours in paid work. Which is a relatively small amount compared to the total endowment of time of this society. So there are two concepts that we use in this lesson to classify societies and those are stocks and funds. So the characteristics of a fund is that the fund has to be maintained. So for example, a cow can be considered as a fund, because in order to milk the cow owner also has to maintain it, to feed it. And to make sure that it's healthy, so that it continues existing. And the limitation of working with a fund is that the flow of milk that one can get from a cow is limited, and depends on the characteristics of the cow. A stock on the other hand, is something that requires no maintenance. So an example can be a barrel of beer, for example, and one can consume as much as they want. So the flow of beer is unlimited as long as the supply lasts, and it requires no overhead from society. So usually, human activity is considered as a fund because as we saw before, only 10% of the human activity is devoted to paid work. And the rest is this overhead that is needed in order to maintain society. So in this sense, it has the same characteristics of a fund. Because activities like physiological overhead and leisure can be considered as being part of what is needed in order to reproduce society. And the supply of labor that one can get is limited and it depends on the characteristics of the society. And mostly on the structure of the society, the population pyramid. So this is one example of an actual science society, and this is the case of Spain in 2012. And in this case, we see that the economically active population was about 54%. We discount from that the unemployment rate which was a 23% at that time. And so we see that in this society, the population that contributes to paid work is about 38%. And that corresponds to 8% of human activity of the total time available to this society. Now there are societies that are not necessarily fans. They can be classified in a different way, and this we will see by looking at two case studies of different informal settlements. So let's start with the first one which is an informal settlement in South Africa, which is called Enkanini. So to situated this is South Africa, and the informal settlement is in the town of Stellenbosch, which is about 40 kilometers from Cape Town. And this is where the settlement is located in the map. So this is a relatively recent settlement, it was created in 2006. And what we saw when we looked at the relation pyramid of the settlement was that in 2012 most of the population was about working age and very few children. And so what we saw is that in 2012, this population really was a stack of people. Because it was not reproducing itself and it was mainly providing, it was people that were working in the town of Stellenbosch. And so was providing a lot of human activity in terms of paid work to the rest of society in a way that is not limited as we saw before by the age structure as in other societies. Now with time, this age structure is changing. So in 2015, when we did the survey in this informal settlement. We looked again at the age structure of the population and we saw that a lot more people were having children. And some of the kids from the first generation were growing up, were teenagers now. And so we see that the shape of the population pyramid starts to change. And this is a society that's beginning to reproduce itself, so it's a stuck fan, we call it. It's somewhere between being stuck and a society that fully reproduces itself, which can be represented as a fund. The second case study is from an informal settlement in Brazil, which is called Vidigal. It's in the City of Rio de Janeiro, so this is Brazil, this is the State of Rio de Janeiro. This is the City of Rio within the state, and the settlement that we are looking at is in the South Zone. And it's located next to the neighborhoods of Leblon and Ipanema in the city. And this is a settlement that has existed since the 1940s. So this is a much more established settlement, and we can see this also in the population pyramids. So in this case, we see that all the age groups are well represented in these settlements. And this is a population that can be considered a fund, because it's reproducing itself. So the time dynamics of different populations are something that is important to take into account. Because for example, when we analyze European countries such as Spain and Germany. We see that when a population stops reproducing itself, so when the fertility rate decreases, that can have an impact in terms of time use and availability of paid work. For example, in Spain right now, most of the population is in working age. But what will happen in a few years, when people are having less and less kids. And there will be less people to work and produce overhead to support the population. And that is the situation that is already happening in Germany right now, as we can see from the different shape of the population pyramid. Where a larger share of society is part of the dependent population. And so there are less people providing paid work and more of an overhead supplied for. So the points that they come from this presentation are that the time allocated to paid work depends on the structure of the population and its demographics. We can classify society in different types, and using the concept of funds and stocks. And the time endowment and overhead requirement of the society changes over time. And so this changes the dynamic I mentioned has to be considered.