[SOUND] We will use a narrated slide show as a way to go through case studies in bottom-up design. I'm going to keep narration to a minimum as this is a self explanatory example. Just some overview comments. The Sangam project represents the work of our students. And they've done an amazing job a few years ago in my year long class. Activities can be completed as individuals or in groups. I believe that it's a good idea for you to individually think about your responses to activities. And then if you happen to be working with a group, it's a good idea to then get together with a group. And then share the ideas and consolidate and combine them. And so that's what I wanted to make a point about. Additional material is provided at the end of the slide deck. So this is based on a bottom-up journey for about a year for a project called Sangam. It is about a marketplace solution to make subsistence fishing communities more efficient. And this is the bottom-up process we have learned about before where we start with people and their life circumstances as consumers and entrepreneurs and build up from there on ecosystems, product development, and business models, and so on. This is an important picture. The one on the left refers to understanding this context to need drivers and context analysis. And the part on the right refers to designing the solution. In terms of the core and augmented offering, the ecosystem, and the enterprise plan. So, we spend time on the left side of the picture, and then we make sure that those insights translate when we work on the right side of the picture. Here is an example of the output in terms of the final presentation or in terms of a business plan and so on. It relates to a problem, opportunity, solution, enterprise plan and sustainable outcomes. Here is the process we follow in terms of Virtual Immersion, Emersion, Preparation for Field Research, Focused Concept Generation and Selection and so on. And so, this is important to understand how we go through this entire process. And you're going to see an example of it. The first step in the process is virtual immersion which aims to move people from sympathy to informed empathy. Sympathy is a very natural emotion when working in poverty. But informed empathy is about connecting the dots accurately in terms of the reality on the ground. Virtual immersion is efficient because it is, of course, virtual. And it enables a number of different things, such as being sensitized to a variety of different issues. Learning about cultural issues, and envisioning usage conditions for products and services as well. This is a poverty simulation that is available to you. This was designed by our team. And this really captures a number of different issues in an interactive way. Here's what you need to do at the end of the poverty simulation. Here are some other things you can do in terms of virtual immersion, like writing a first person profile based on your reading of an interview. Making this a first person profile is particularly important, as it puts you in the shoes of those you are trying to design a solution for. Here is another activity that reflects on what you've learned. You can also do model building based on the interviews and the data and so on. And you can build more models on poverty on the environment as well as on products, needs and markets. This is another example of an activity. Here is a sample. Here is an activity to understand the intersection of poverty and ecology. It involves viewing and analyzing videos as well as readings, in order to understand what is unique about subsistence market places and the local environment. How do ecological issues affect people in their daily lives and so on? Similarly, we can take a look at needs, products, and market interactions as well. We have a number of reading activities that are built in, and these are self-explanatory. This is an exercise to be done in order to understand the context, the drivers, and the need that you are trying to analyze. Here is a movie based exercise. And the idea here is to have deep immersion in one context and try to think about the needs in that context and so on. This kind of an exercise where we freeze a very specific context and go deep in to it is a very useful way to try to connect the dots, both in terms of understanding and in terms of designing solutions. Here is a reading activity which relates to trying to understand what this bottom-up approach is and what's this bottom-up immersion process. Can it be useful for you in non-subsistence context? What have you learned from it? What are ways in which you can apply it across all contexts? Here is a reading activity that is very useful in the virtual immersion. The second phase is emersion and the idea here is having submerged in a radically different context. When you reemerge, what are some new insights that you've learned that stretch your disciplinary concepts, or disciplinary understanding, whether you are from a background in business or engineering or design and so on? We also have an emersion diary activity where we try to understand what is new about what we have learned, and it starts by just putting down a couple of bullet points as to what you have learned about subsistence that has changed your basic understanding in your discipline. We have a number of reading activities built in. >> Whenever your ready there. >> The emersion exercise is worth doing in the longer form, or a narrative form as well. It's really worth unpacking what concepts you've came under the course with in terms of your basic discipline, your knowledge to date. And what does extreme context has done in terms of testing the limits of those concepts? So from the point of view of management or engineering or design or any other area, how good are those concepts? And how do they need to be stretched? Do you need new concepts and so on? This is what articulating. >> This is an immersion exercise that can be done in order to identify needs that you want to focus on These are examples for Sangam. In terms of the need, these are the drivers. These are some of the context elements. Another activity relates to need deconstruction. Here is an example of bottom-up need deconstruction. This is from the eyes of an amputee, and this is an example of developing low cost prosthetics. So here are some of the things to keep in mind. I need to survive, a need that breaks into, I need to feel comfortable in social settings, I need to provide for my family, and I need to be content with myself, very simple needs. And in turn, I need to be comfortable in social settings, breaks up into the need to have an inconspicuous arm, so that a person is not perceived differently. I need to provide for my family, breaks up into I need to maintain the job, and I need to feel prepared for the future. And I need to feel content with myself breaks up into, I need to be capable of doing many things, but I need to be realistic as well. So, these are the exercises we try to generate, to make sure that we understand the need from the eyes of the potential beneficiary, whether that beneficiary is a two acre farmer, or the low income homemaker, or an amputee in this case. Here are some of the way to go about doing this in the form of statements, instead of phrases or words The idea here is to double-up an exhaustive list of needs. Now, flipping this around, we can think of top-down need deconstruction. How does IPT partner locally? And by IPT, we mean Illinois Prosthetic Technologies, which is the example that we're using here. How are operations funded? Who can IPT partner with? Under how are operations funded, can IPT sell prosthesis? Can IPT get Gilman grants? Who can IPT partner with, includes clinics, in terms of what kind of training that can be provided and so on? So, this is top-down need deconstruction from the point of the view of the organization or the entity that is trying to design the solution. Similarly, who's the target user? What do they need? What can they afford? What are their expectations for a prosthesis? What lowers their quality of life? So, again, the idea here is to take a top-down approach, and try to understand needs from this perspective. Again, our point is that the top-down has to meet the bottom-up, and our point is also that the bottom up tends to be neglected. Once again, you can generate a set of needs to problem statements as well and try to group them. Once again, bottom up need deconstruction can be repeated. This is the output for the Sangam Project. Similarly, we can focus on our top-down need deconstruction. Here is an output from such an exercise. >> The next phase is to generate ideas for solutions to the problem, and to evaluate this ideas. >> The need deconstruction and the need driver context analysis provides the basis for idea generation, we do this in a number of ways. We start bottom-up, so we hold off on top-down approaches and start bottom-up using images, videos, deep dives into context, and so on. The idea here is that top-down approaches tend to be based on what's out there onresearch and so on. And we want to hold off on that, and allow you the full creativity of being bottom-up. We similarly can use top-down approaches, which is to reach out to things that are already out there like technologies, current solutions, functions of current solutions, current processes in delivering solutions, reviewing data and coming up with ideas, looking at country descriptions, and looking at parallel products. >> Idea generation can also be done by focusing on the need, drivers, and context elements, and using them to generate new ways of designing solutions. We can try to generate ideas by freezing a customer group or a geographic location and so on, this can be done with top-down approaches as well. >> In terms of developing criteria for evaluating ideas, one approach is to rank the ideas and then consider the ranking, and consider why you're ranked in a particular way. This is a very bottom-up way to try to identify criteria by first ranking, and then trying to unpack and think about what the underlying criteria were that you were looking for. Here is the example for Sangam. >> The next step is Preparation for Field Research, This is a big investment and it requires thinking through and planning a number of different steps. And also being willing to be flexible in terms of how the field research evolves. Here is an activity that involves reading and analysis of videos that is useful in trying to understand how to gain marketplace insights in subsistence marketplaces. Here we focus on what questions you want to ask. What stimuli you want to show? Whom you want to talk to? What you want to see? And how you are going to learn? So, this is from the Sangam plan, in terms of gaining a better understanding and so on. >> The next step is Actual Immersion and Field research. This is an exciting step where there is so much learning. And much of this is because of being there by learning and listening from people. Here are some insights from their actual field research, which was done in India. >> The next step is Reflections about Immersion. And this is very important following an intense actual immersion activity which last over days or even weeks. So, in part of the step back and reflect rather than fixate on certain events and assume that we know because of them. It's very important to get perspective and allow some of the insights to sink in as well. In this stage, it's often use for you to understand what was learned and what are some examples or events that block that learning out. It's also use for to learn about oneself. >> What did you learn about yourself that you did not know before? How can you improve in terms of your ability to listen and learn? Some of the things to do here are to review notes, list key insights, consult with others and share insights and so on. >> The next step is Focused Concept Generation and Evaluation. The idea here is to step back often and intense actual immersion activity and try to come up with a few concepts rather than fixate on one concept. The idea here is to step back and then reconverge on a new concept. But to do so by looking at a menu of concepts. This leads us to focused concept generation. So here we want to absorb and reflect and generate insights. Once again we are back to the need, drivers, and context and we want to generate concept and so on. Here are some reading that are useful in thinking about designing solution. >> These are some potential ideas for concept design. >> These are examples for Sangam in terms of the need. These are the drivers. These are some of the context elements. Once again, bottom up need deconstruction can be repeated. This is the output for the Sangam project. Similarly, we can focus on top down need deconstruction. These are some potential ideas for concept design. It's a good idea to also have a very detailed need listing. The aim here is to be exhaustive, to combine redundancies, to group needs and sub needs based on the categories to create a hierarchy and so on. >> Once again it is useful to repeat the criteria generation exercise. >> Here is the example for Sangam. >> More idea generation using bottom-up approaches. And top-down approaches. Once we come up with the concept, we can use that same process from which we move from ideas to a concept to double up variants of the concept. So what are different ways in which that concept can be implemented? So, this is a more concrete level of developing concept variations. Here is the concept detailing for Sangam, in terms of a portal where merchants and fishermen can exchange information Onto the activity here just to list metrics, and list specs and list benchmarks. And this is an example for Sangam. The product can be augmented as well in product design, in terms of additional features, and so on. This is an example again for Sangam in terms of what they wanted the fisherman to do. Similarly, we need an ecosystem which is not intrinsic to the product, but it is what goes around that enables the usage of the product. Then people are deprived on multiple friends. It's important to develop an ecosystem, it could be a network of fishermen, it could be educational programs and so on. We do concept testing at this stage to get feedback on a variety of issues The key with the concept testing plan is to let people talking a broad way. A number of things could be asked. There's a correct way that the need is met. Then showing people the concept and asking about a broad way. Then getting more specific in terms of how it can be changed, specific features, how much they'll pay for it and so on. This is the feedback or response that the Sangam group got from their field testing. >> The next step is to design the solution, which includes the core and the augmented product and the ecosystem. >> Here is an activity that is useful at this stage in order to move the project forward. >> Here is a concept detailing for Sangam in terms of a portal vibe merchants, and people involved in fishing can exchange information. Another activity here is to list metrics, technical specifications and benchmarks. And this is an example for Sangam. The product can be augmented as well in product design, in terms of additional features and so on. This is an example again for Sangam. Similarly, we need an ecosystem which is not intrinsic to the product but goes around it in terms of enabling it's usage. When people are deprived on multiple it's important to double up an ecosystem. It could be a network of people involved in fishing, educational programs, and so on. The next step is to design the enterprise plan, which relates to how the solution is going to be implemented. This project culminates in a detailed enterprise plan. Here are some readings that are useful in thinking about the enterprise plan >> These are the parts of the enterprise plan. Here is a logic of our written business plan. In a written business plan, we think about who we are, where we live and what we aim to do. So this is really about the entity or the organization, what your strengths and weaknesses are, and what the opportunities and threats are as well. The second part of the Burson business plan, is the journey to the solution. So this begins a virtual immersion, and idea generation. It moves on to market research. It moves on to learning and reflection from field research. And then it moves on to the concept generation and evaluation as well. The third part of the recent plan is how we develop an enterprise plan around the solution. And it has a number of different elements such as story board, ecosystem and so on, the marketing strategy, the sustainable marketing mix, and the exchange model. Finally, how do we implement the Enterprise Plan, in terms of forecasting, a launch schedule, and outcomes in terms of financial forecast, and so on. Here are some guidelines if an actual in person presentation is being made. Here are some parts to a presentation as well. And this is a value proposition for Sangam. So the whole idea here is to reduce waste to create this marketplace and to connect fishermen to the consumers. We also like to visualize how the solution compares to the competition. And this means to draw key dimensions and locate a solution in terms of what it will be perceived as in the minds of the stakeholders. So for example, the dimensions used here are spread of information and independence from technology. And Sangam is high on the spread of information, as well as independence from any specific technology. The next step is to think about a storyboard. The entire value chain of what happens, with particular emphasis on the key players like fishermen, and consumers and so on. And so here is an example of what Sangam came up with. And here is a visualization. Under this step is to communicate the value of proposition. Here it's useful to double up a specific vehicle rather than talk in terms of generalities. The idea here is to make sure that we use an understanding and reflect it in doubling up specific communication vehicles. Here is an example that Sangam came up with. Another aspect is to deliver the value proposition. What does the value chain look like and how is the value proposition going to be delivered. >> In the case of Sangam, this is their story board. >> Exchange models are fundamentally about how to make the business plan or the enterprise plan sustainable. So every entity in [INAUDIBLE] in the exchange needs to be listed and then the exchanges between them need to be articulated. Not all of these has to involve money but it does have to involve a give and a get. Here is the exchange model for Sangam. The next step is to think through the implementation phases. What are the distinct phases and what is going to be done in each phase? >> Here's an example of the Sangam case. >> We do a number of rapid costing exercise in order to identify the different cost. And this feeds into our financials. In terms of financials, we try to do this top down and bottom up. We tried to start with each phase in implementation. We considered the price, the unit sold and build up some there. Similarly top down, we enumerate all our expense items and that cost us to price. Here is an example for Sangam. In terms of profitability, this is what they had proposed. And this is what they've proposed in terms of investments. >> The next step is to develop sustainable outcomes in terms of profits, planet and people. >> Finally, you have to think about the bottom line in terms of economic, social, and environment outcomes And this is what was proposed by Sangam.