Welcome to the last commentary on adjective clauses. >> What else could we possibly say about adjective clauses? >> Now, now, we do have one more thing to talk about, reduction. >> Yeah, reduced adjective clauses, how could I have forgotten? The girl sitting right here is a dummy. >> No, you're not. And actually, you just used one in your last sentence! >> I meant to do that. Okay, so let's talk about how to make the transition from unreduced adjective clauses to reduced adjective clauses. What do you think, Emily? Should reduced adjective clauses always be taught after the unused forms? >> I think for the purpose of better understanding the rules, it makes more sense to follow that sequence. I have heard of teachers separating the instruction of both, and in the end, when they teach the reduced ones, they are just telling students to follow a pattern. >> What do you mean? >> Well lets use your earlier example. The girl talking right here is a dummy. Instead of teaching students that the girl talking right here is a shortened form of the girl who is talking right here. The teacher may say, subject, the girl, plus verb I-N-G, talking, dot dot dot, is a pattern. And talking describes the girl. >> Right, and although the pattern works to some degree, it's so much clearer for students if teachers point out directly that this pattern is actually a reduced form of an adjective clauses so students know the two forms have the same meaning. Students should also know that reduced adjective clauses are common and are used in both speech and writing. >> Yeah, and it shows a really high command of the language when student can use reduced adjective clauses correctly. >> Okay, you were the one who made both videos. What would you say is a good tip in teaching how to reduce clauses, >> Hm. I think one common strategy that I used for both the reduced adjectives clauses video and the appositives video is providing step by step rules. I always feel that rules are like formulas and they make it easier for students to follow. >> Yeah, I noticed the rules and thought they were extremely helpful and also easy to remember. The way that you worded the rules help students narrow down instances when they can reduce the causes. Essentially they not only learn what to do, but when to do it. >> Well, when I was first making those particular video lessons, I wrote out examples, and then noted how I was thinking about the reduction process in my head. So for example, I had to identify whether I could do this reduction process with all types of causes. >> And you found that you can't. >> Right, and then I thought about whether reduction can be applied to any verb. >> Off the top of my head I can say no. It doesn't work with stative non-action verbs. >> Yes in one part of my video I list the three structures students should look for. >> I really liked how you followed that with an example or two for each type. >> Yes because I want students to see each type in isolation instead of amongst a group of examples. I feel like they would notice the forms more carefully. >> And you clearly showed how to go from the unreduced to reduced form by introducing the rule, pausing to look at the example sentence, and then making the necessary changes by crossing out words. >> This is great for visual learners. >> Yeah, good point and you did something similar in the appositives video. Because appositives are also reductions, you again introduced rules on when and how to go from a longer unreduced form to the shortened positives. And crossed out the words in example of sentences that could be removed. >> The extra point that we need to mention with appositives is that they are used with commas. >> Yes, and I noticed that you introduced the concept of non restrictive adjective clauses in order to explain why commas are needed. Appositives are reductions of only non-restricted adjective clauses. In the video you use the term Additional Information instead of Non-Restrictive but they're of course referring to the same thing. And I love how you sneak in the sentence about the Lord of the Rings. >> I can't help it, I love the trilogy, especially Legolas. >> Emily, a huge fan of Legolas, wishes that she herself could be an elf. >> Yes, it's true. Can I just point out the way you paused where the commas would be? In writing, appositives must be enclosed by commas. And in speech, pauses take the place of commas. >> Absolutely. Hey, do you know what the Lord of the Ring character is? >> Yeah! Do you want to hear them? >> [SOUND] >> Okay, okay, let me try. Gandalf the Gray, who becomes the white wizard, was the one who fought the Balrog. Eragon, the strider, is the one who can speak Elvish. >> Excuse me, did you say Elvis? >> Elvish. Elvish, the language of the elves, is what I'm referring to. >> Let me continue. Boromir son of Denethor was the one who tried to take the ring away from Frodo. And finally, Pippin. And finally, Pippin, the silly hobbit was the one who saved Faramir's life when his father tried to burn him alive. Hey, I'm done. >> Okay, and we're done. That was a lot of appositives. Thank you Emily. >> You're welcome. And thank you to all of you who are listening to us. We hope you've enjoyed our class on adjectives. >> And many types of >> Adjective clauses. We'll see you next time, bye. >> Bye.