[MUSIC] We have the date included in all of these and then page numbers. Once we get more specific, once we're looking at an exact quote from somewhere. It's helpful to the readers to be able to know where to find that, especially if it's a long article, all right? So the page number, it's important then too. There's also kind of a ratio difference here, right? With the summary, you're always making it smaller than the original. Maybe it's like a five to one ratio. [LAUGH] Five paragraphs, and you're just summarizing in one paragraph, or something like that. Maybe it's 20 to 1. Either way, it's always going to be something big, going to something much smaller. Quote, one, one, right? Quote's the exact words, you're not changing anything. It's going to be the same length as the original. You'll be adding, I guess, your author, right, the information, the citation information. But the actual idea from the original is going to be exact same length. When it comes to a paraphrase, what do you think? >> Less than even one. >> One, one? Roughly, right? Approximately one to one. It's not going to be exact, right? It might be a little longer, a little bit shorter than the original, but it's going to be about the same length. You take the sentence and you paraphrase it into a sentence, something like that. So, I think it's helpful to know how these different skills for working with sources relate to each other. And when you might use that, right? Summaries then are trying to tell us about the whole article. And, we'll be doing a lot of summarizing in this class, a lot of focusing on articles that you're reading. But, when you're doing your source-based essay, when you're bringing in multiple sources, as you know, you have to have at least five sources for your source-based essay, then you're not going to be summarizing every source. You'll be paraphrasing specific ideas from those sources, or quoting ideas from those sources. Does that make sense? Yeah? Sort of? All right. So Now, we're going to take a look at some more detailed explanations of paraphrasing, and how to do paraphrasing, and all those kinds of things. You have information in your textbook that you've been reading about paraphrasing, and we'll talk about that in a minute. But I also wanted to show you another resource that talks about paraphrasing, just so you have a different perspective on it. It explains things just a little bit differently. Let me see if I can zoom in a little bit. There we go. How many of you are familiar with the Purdue OWL Online Writing Class? All right, about half. Okay, this is a great resource. And, I will create a link to this resource on our Blackboard page so that you can access it easily. But, the Purdue OWL Online Writing Lab contains great information about all kinds of topics related to writing. So, they have a specific section about paraphrasing. A lot of this is going to sound familiar because it's very similar what our textbook says. But again, I think it's nice to see it worded differently in a couple of places, and kind of understand it better based on that. So first, a paraphrase is your own rendition or version, all right, of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else, presented in a new form. Someone else's ideas in a new version, that you've created. Yeah? A paraphrase is a legitimate way to borrow from a source, when accompanied by documentation. Okay? Source information, a citation. You're using a citation and a paraphrase, then this is a good way to avoid issues of plagiarism, right? You're telling your readers where you got the information, and that's great. That's what we want. It's also, like it says here, a more detailed restatement than a summary because it focuses on a single specific idea. Summary is focusing on the big picture. Paraphrase zooms in and focuses on one specific idea. And so, it's a little bit more detailed. It's an important skill, a valuable skill. Because, in academic setting, most teachers think it's better than quoting information. It's better than quoting from an undistinguished passage. What that means here, if you can say it, then say it pretty clearly, in your own language. There's no reason to quote the author. If the author didn't say it in a really special way. Wow, it's amazing. I can't believe he worded it that way. If it's just an average sentence, then put it in your words. Make it your own. Take ownership of that in your writing, all right? And that's favor by professors' academics. They like to see that. We like to see that. [LAUGH] All right, so it helps you to control the temptation to quote too much right? Quoting, let's face it, is easy, right? Copy, paste, put little quote marks around it, make sure you're introducing it with the author, way easier than paraphrasing. [LAUGH] Right? It's okay. You can quote some especially those really difficult passages, those really technical passages. The things that the authors write that are poetic. It's so beautifully written. That's a good reason to quote. But not everything is quotable, right? Not everything's worthy of quoting. We want you to do a little bit of both, quoting and paraphrasing. This is the big thing for us teachers. Paraphrasing well requires critical thinking. It requires you to really understand the original, right? And, it shows us that you understand the original. If you can take somebody else's ideas and think about it, process it, and then rework it. So that you're explaining it in your words. That shows effort. It requires effort, right? And it demonstrates a lot of critical thinking skills that teachers love to see. Right? So, this is why-. >> [COUGH]. >> It's an important skill. Whoops, wrong So we're going to look at some steps in your textbook to paraphrasing that's why I go over these two, because their slightly different suggestion. Re-read until you understand. No shortcuts here. [LAUGH] Right? Sometimes that means you have to read it a couple of times. You may have to learn some new vocabulary, right? But, you'll have to read it until you get it. Okay? That's the first step. This is my favorite suggestion when I'm talking to students about paraphrasing. Don't look at the original when you're writing your paraphrase. Close the book, cover it up. Turn off the screen whatever you have to do. Don’t look at the original when you’re paraphrasing. And we’ll talk about why in a little bit. If you’re looking at the original at the same time, then- >> [INAUDIBLE] >> [LAUGH] Right. A lot of the times your language will be too close to the original, right? It'll be too similar. And that is a plagiarism issue, even if you're including author, the date, and things like that. If it's too close to the original, they're going to say, mm, [LAUGH] it's almost like copying, right? We don't want that. So this recommends jotting down a few words to help you remember what the paraphrase is about, why you want to use it in your research. Always, since you're not going to be looking at the original, when you paraphrase. After you finish paraphrasing, then you should look at the original again. Right? Did you get the important points? Did you include what you needed to? You need to double check that. Quotation marks should be used, not only for full sentence quotes, but any short phrases that are very specific to the author. So anything that's exact should be in quotes. And then of course, you know the source of information. So look at a couple of examples here and then we'll go back to our textbook. Here's an original path. Can you read this? Maybe I can make it a little bigger still. >> No, no, no. >> A little bigger? I'll see if I can. That better? Here we go. Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes. And as a result they overuse quotations in the final research paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. So then we have examples of good paraphrases, good summary and bad paraphrase, right? Let's look at the summary first because we've been working on summary. Students should take just a few notes in direct quotation from sources to help minimize the amount of footed material in the research paper. >> Several sentences and condensed it to a main idea with no citation. Right? This is an MLA style citation so it doesn't have the date. But. It was in 1976 in APA. >> What is the? >> The author? Here. So in this summary, it's not included in the sentence. It's included in parenthesis at the end. We'll talk about those variations soon. So there are different ways that you can acknowledge the author. You can do it in the sentence itself. And you should if you're writing a full summary of an article. Okay, if you're writing a paragraph summary it's good to mention the author in the sentence. If you are just summarizing one idea, this is an option. >> Yeah. For the summaries you'll be doing for the articles that we read in this class, should always start off with author's name in that first sentence. Yeah. According to Lester and his article, Writing Research Papers. >> His book, Writing Research Papers. All right, here's a good paraphrase. In research papers, students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material to the desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it's essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim. Verbatim means word by word. Verbatim, exactly. I can't fit them both on the same. >> Yes. >> What's the name of to jump, jump, jump words. >> What's that? >> To jump words? >> Jump them? >> Is that, is that on here somewhere? Are you reading it? >> It was up. >> It was up further? To jot down? To jot something down means just to write quickly. >> Jot. I don’t know. Yeah, just quick little notes. Jot down words pretty much. The main thing I want to look at here is I want to compare the original to a plagiarized paraphrase, right? Because this is one of the most common challenges when paraphrasing. Here the original says students frequently overuse direct quotation. Down here it says students often use too many direct quotations. It's really close. >> Mm. >> Right? It says frequently, is changed to often. Overused, used too many. But we're just trading out a couple words. Yeah. This is called synonym substitution. Just a couple words are changed. In taking notes, when they take notes. All right? And as a result, resulting in. You see how close it is? So close. [LAUGH] All right, we're going to work on avoiding this, because this is a problem, okay? When you're writing a paraphrase, it's good, not only to change the wording, but also think about, maybe, changing the sentence structure Changing the order of ideas because that makes it a little bit more your own. Does that make sense? It's tough, but we'll practice. [LAUGH] Okay. So now back to what your textbook says about paraphrasing. And then we'll practice some. So now I'm going to be covering some information that, in your textbook, on pages 6 to 13, to start with, if you want you can open up to page 6 in your textbook. This is the first part, three criteria for a good paraphrase. A good paraphrase has the same meaning as the original, you're not greatly changing what it actually says. You're not taking away, important information or adding something that the author didn't actually say >> Mine had three or four followups, that I can check and can think about. Can I use them the same as the RA? A citation? >> Quotation, yeah? >> Quotation. >> I saw you doing the. Yeah, so if there are parts that you can't paraphrase, that you're struggling to paraphrase, then yes, you should put quotation marks around those parts. So sometimes, in some ways, you can combine paraphrasing and quoting sometimes. But if you are doing that and you're taking words from the original and you can't think of a way to reword that, then you should definitely be putting them into quotation marks, good question. When it says nothing added what I see most frequently is students maybe adding a little bit of their own opinion or something like that. >> Story? >> What's that? >> In a paraphrase? >> In a paraphrase. >> Yeah also in. >> Yeah, a story. >> Story. >> Okay, yeah. So when you're paraphrasing you're recording what the author said, neutral, neutral report of what the author says. You might later on respond to what the author says, react to it, offer your own interpretation, but not in the paraphrase, when you're paraphrasing you're sharing what the author meant without commentary. Another thing that you need in a good paraphrase, a good paraphrase is different enough from the original, that's where we talked about synonym substitution and stuff like that. So it should be different in word choice as much as possible, there will always be some key words that are similar or the same. Or maybe just a different part of speech, a different word than the word family, we can change parts of speech too. But a lot of the word choice will be new, synonyms and things like that. But also different in sentence structure, you can reorder it, it doesn't have to appear in the same exact order as the author wrote it, so you can switch it up a little bit. And then a quick paraphrase also cites the source, that includes author's name, year, publication in APA style. Are there any questions about this so far? >> No. >> All right so on page seven there are examples from your textbook. Might be a little small to see on the screen so you can look on your book on page seven if you want. I reminded you over here on the right of what a good paraphrase includes, so here we have an original idea from a source, and then two paraphrases. We're going to decide which of these is better? >> Second. >> [LAUGH] Jumping the gun. All right, so the original. A global village was upon us that more and more resembled an American buffet table. You know a buffet? You've been to buffets? >> [INAUDIBLE] >> Yeah, okay. Even if chilies, chutney, and kimchi were added to the mix. So that's from, Ira Ripken's' article, he published in 2003. So, first paraphrase says we came to a big table with food from many different countries, but it was really a lot like an American meal. Does it meet these criteria? >> No. >> No? What doesn't it do? >> It doesn't mention the author. >> [CROSSTALK] >> It doesn't cite the source, right? No author or date. >> A different meaning. >> A different meaning. >> A different meaning from the orignal? Why do you think this a different meaning? >> It's talking about food. >> [CROSSTALK] >> So the first line says that the two boys have gotten in front of them, and the second line says that we came to [INAUDIBLE]. >> Okay, all right, so you feel like it's changing the ideas here. I think we're going to talk a little bit later on about using metaphorical or idiomatic language because that's another paraphrasing challenge. Here this is kind of a, he's creating a metaphor, this is kind of what the world is like. It's like you get to an American buffet, yeah sure, we've pulled from other countries but it's largely influenced by America. So here's the better version, you've already decided that. We have the source, Rifkin down to here, we've got a recording verb, he says, Rifkin says, the whole world seems like the United States, even though it includes contributions from other cultures. So this is actually a really kind of complicated thing to paraphrase because it's so metaphorical. He's using the idea of the buffet and food to share a bigger idea of cultural influence. That one's pretty tricky, but we'll look at some more metaphorical language later on.