Now, let's talk about techniques of motivic improvisation. The techniques of motivic improvisation, such as repetition, transposition, expansion, interpolation, contraction, fragmentation, inversion, retrograde, and retrograde inversion, are innately connected with the art of composition. The underlying premise of motivating proposition is to take a small melodic gesture called a motive and transform it in a logical coherent and musically satisfying manner. The use of motivic development lends coherence to improvisation. There are certain characteristics that a motive should have in order to be developmental and in order to be used in improvisation. First of all, the motif should have a strong rhythmic profile, an interesting melodic shape, a clear harmonic definition, and a relatively short duration. These are, of course, broad and very generic characteristics, but things get a little bit more interesting when you start improvising on the tune, like Charlie's composition or Tyrone's or Daniel's. Then you have a specific tune to work with, from which you can generate motifs that are similar in design to the original melody. The tune that you're working with might give you some ideas for transformations. Not only will the process establish a much stronger bond with the composition, but also will be in keeping with the tune you're improvising on. Before Charlie demonstrates the use of motivic development, l1et me briefly describe and demonstrate different techniques of motivic development. First of all, repetition. Repetition is probably the easiest technique from our list. But you can have a little bit fun with that technique. So repetition can be exact or inexact. Even though exact repetition might be redundant, it can be very effective in certain contexts. For instance, for giving continuous melodic emphasis or confirming certain melodic ideas that you want to prioritize in your line. Inexact repetition involves slight pitch or rhythmic modification of the original motif, but only minor adjustments to the original motif. Let's work on a specific motif. Here's our motif derived from the C Dorian mot. [MUSIC] So, let's first talk about intervallic content. It's really important to do a bit of analysis so you know how to, It comes up with intervallic conversions, retrograde, and so forth. So we have [MUSIC] +5, and by the way you can see that motif on the screen. +5 means +5 semitones, so perfect fourth. -3. [MUSIC] Minor third down. [MUSIC] + 5. [MUSIC] +5. [MUSIC] 4, and minor third down. [MUSIC] That's the original motif. Now, transposition. The technique of transposition transfers the original motif to a different pitch level. There are two types of transpositions, model and real. So if this is our original motif, [MUSIC] and that motif is in C Dorian. Upon transposition to a different pitch level, you have to preserve the underlying modality of the model. So if you transpose it to the third starting on e flat. [MUSIC]. We have to adjust our intervals, in order to be compliant with underlying modality. [MUSIC] C-Dorian, in that case. Instead of [MUSIC] +5, we have [MUSIC] +6 at the beginning and then 4 down. Real transposition on the other hand, preserves the exact intevalic content of the original motif. So, most likely you're going to encounter chromatic pitches when you start applying real transposition. So, again, our original motif. [MUSIC] Real transpositions preserves the intervalic content of the original. [MUSIC] Right, so if we're in C Dorian, [MUSIC] All right? Real transposition introduces chromatic notes. It's a very nice way of dealing with chromatic content of your lines. You preserve the counter of your original model and then introduce chromatic pitches in keeping with the original intervallic content of the motif. The next two techniques, Expansion & Interpolation. These techniques add new material to the original motive. Expansions add something new at the end of the motive. So for instance, our original motif, [MUSIC] Motivic expansion. [MUSIC] All right, so you can add a little bit of tail at the end. So expand original motif. And the technique of interpolation add something new in the middle of the motif. [MUSIC] So we added four notes [MUSIC] And we return to the original, so both techniques expand the original motif. Now, conversely, contraction and fragmentation are motivic techniques that shorten the length of the motif and use part of the motive in a developmental fashion. So contraction, as the name suggests, is particularly useful with longer motivic ideas. And it shorten the length of the original motif. So if our original motif is [MUSIC], we can shorten it [MUSIC]. You can shorten it to just four notes instead of the original six. And fragmentation then takes the salient ideas of the original motif and then develops them within the line. So, for instance, fragmentation. [MUSIC] Original motif and fragmentation [MUSIC] So we took the first three notes and we transpose it to come up with a much longer melodic class. So you can see once you start understanding the principles behind these techniques you can start combining them, and creating longer melodic statements. But again, I cannot stress enough the importance of thinking more compositionally about yourself. And the techniques of motivic development will definitely bring that coherence into your playing. Now the next technique. Inversion is a little bit more complicated because it involves mirroring the intervals of the original motif. So jazz as in transposition there are two types of inversions, real and tonal. Real inversion preserves the exact intervallic content of the original motif in inversion and as a result, chromatic pitches will likely occur in the transform form of that motif. Tonal inversion preservers the tonal model context in which the original motif is situated. So, as a result, we will encounter minor intervalic adjustments to preserve the underlying modal inter monality. Okay, so our original motif. [MUSIC] So, now, the importance of analyzing its intervalic content. So +5, +5 semi-tones in model inversion, [MUSIC] And then real inversion preserves the exact intervalic content. [MUSIC]. So original [MUSIC]. So you can hear these techniques are very much related. Model inversion on the other hand, [MUSIC] Doesn't sound the same because we have to adjust the underlying intervals to preserve Dorian foundation that motif. Even more complex technique, which you can experiment with. But is definitely used for in composition, is the technique of retrograde. And this technique renders the original motif backwards with a change of interval direction, or with intervallic complementation or with intervallic inversions. Let me unpack this complicated statement. So a minor third down becomes a minor third up or a major six down because minor third and major six are complementary intervals. We have to be mindful of the direction of this series. Right? And remember we'll read interval, the original motif backwards. So original [MUSIC] So if our original motif has minor third down at the end, the opening interval is minor third up. [MUSIC] That's your retrograde. So when you listen to these two motifs side by side. [MUSIC] Kind of complementary, because you're basically reading the original backwards. Now, and its close companion, retrograde inversion. So this technique renders the original motif backwards, but with the same intervals as the original motif. So if the last interval is a minor third down, the first interval of retrograde inversion is exactly the same, as minor third down or major 6 up. So be mindful of the counter characteristics. So here's our original motif. [MUSIC] And here's retrograde inversion. [MUSIC] See how closely related these motifs are. And again, the technique of inversion, retrograde, and retrograde inversion are great improvisational devices that are a bit more complex and intricate. But are particularly important in composition. So, as I mentioned before, with inversion retrograde and retrograde inversions, you have to do some practice. But is doable. But with other techniques that we discussed earlier, transposition, fragmentation, repetition, and others. You can add much needed coherence in your playing. And begin thinking about the process of improvisation with this, and as kind of extension of composition. So for great improvisers, there is not too much difference between, what is improvised and what is composed.