On the screen, you can see a different realization of the isotope progression that implements rootless voicing, arranged using what jazz musicians call drop-two voicing. I'd like to use the remainder of this session and talk about that important concept. So first let me play that chord progression. Okay, one, two, three, four. [MUSIC] The drop-two technique allows you to transform a closed position chord into an open position voicing. With their less predictable intervalic structure, open voicings are generally more attractive and useful in the context of harmonic progressions. In contrast, close position voicings are more compact. And there is not enough flexibility, as far as their usefulness is concerned. On the other hand, the harmonic transparency of open voicings made them ideal for different harmonic scenarios, both as complete and incomplete structures. The processes of opening a closed position chord follows a very simple rule. You can transfer the second note from the top of a chord down an octave. That's all there is to it. So let me explain how that process works in practice. On the screen you can see the explanation of the drop-two technique using the C major 9 chord. All right, so here is our close position voicing, C Major 9. So first what we do, we take the second note from the top, B, and transfer it down an octave. And put it in the left hand. So that's our open position voicing. Or drop-two voicing. So now we have root, 7, 3rd, 5, and 9. So when you compare these two sounds [MUSIC] Sounds more compact and this sounds [MUSIC] More open. We'll refer to that voicing as a first position. Because we're getting good first position here. So second position, we basically change the order of the right hand. So this is our second position close voicing. Take the second note from the top and we generate a nice [MUSIC] Open position voicing. And this is one of my favorite. The second and the fourth one because it has this lovely nine in the left hand. [MUSIC] Now, we continue with the third position. So first position, second position, third position. Let's take the second note from the top, transfer it down an octave. [MUSIC] And you have that voicing, or if you are unable to reach the tenth. [MUSIC] Go to that position. And final position, so, one, two, three, four. [MUSIC] Transfer down an octave, second note from the top [MUSIC]. All right, so we have four lovely open sonorities. One. Two. Three [MUSIC] Okay, so these are complete chords with the root. But we can easily change them to incomplete two hand voicings simply by augmenting the root from the left hand, and then distribute the note in a more equitable way between hands. And you can use that particular texture as a great texture for comping. All right, so on the screen you can see a step by step process of generating the voicing that I used previously during the realization of the progression. Okay, so here are four drop to voicing for C Major 9. First position, second position, third position, fourth position. So first what we're going to do. We're going to get rid of the root and play two notes in the left hand and two notes with the right hand. So instead of this [MUSIC] That's our rootless voicing. Second position. Okay, third position. And fourth position. So let me play the low C. Let me play this with these rootless formations. [MUSIC] So we have four unique voicing configurations. And, by the way, you can use the same process with other chords. And I will strongly encourage you to do that. As you might remember, in my realization, I used like three note voicings in my right hand, you know. So you can simply change these 4-part chords [SOUND], into 5-part chords by simply [SOUND] doubling one of these chord members in the right hand. So using that kind of open octave. [MUSIC] Or just reinforce that scenario. So here are your four voicings with a reinforce octave. [MUSIC] All right, so these type of sonority sounds highly dramatic and particularly useful for comping. So now, look at the realization of the isotope progression on the screen, and you can see how each rootless voicing is derived from the complete 5-part chord. And that would be something for you to figure out on your own. What are the original voicings for C13 like? [MUSIC] How do they arrive at that sonority? And all of these voicings are based on a drop-two technique. So just to give you a little hint, the voicing for that particular sonority is derived from that, from this voicing, C 7 13, and remember we have four positions, so if you get to this third position, drop the, drop the second note down an octave. So this is, this is your voicing. And then we basically reinforce the octave. [SOUND] Right, so. [MUSIC] All of these voicings. [MUSIC] Are the result of drop-two technique. So here on the screen you have a better explanation of that derivation. So I chose a C 13 and see step by step process by which I arrived at this rootless formations. Okay, so, one [MUSIC] And the rootless. [MUSIC] And some of them sound kind of unusual and by exploring all possibilities, you can actually find some interesting and notice common sonorities. Like for instance, that sound. [MUSIC] Might not necessarily be associated with a dominant sound. But in the proper context, it can be rendered as such. [MUSIC] It's a lovely sonority, kind of unorthodox way of delinquent voicings. Now in order to familiarize yourself with this and other structures, you can practice drop-two voicings using familiar cycle of fifth progression that we've discussed with pentatonic voicings. Just going to give you a couple of exercises that I developed for this session. So, we're going to explore major 9 voicings. All right, so this is our drop-two voicing, and we're going to move own a cycle. [MUSIC] And we're kind of moving between first position and second position. You notice these two chords form a very convincing voice reading. Are notes in common and are like these wedge like progressions. In a contrary motion. [That's kind of one skip, but that's fine. So we kind of continue with this same progression throughout the cycle. [MUSIC] As I mentioned earlier, second position voice, including nine sounds really effective. [MUSIC] And here is an exercise that utilizes rootless voicings with two plus two distribution. So now, I'm going to start with that sonority. So, again, without your root, it's very difficult to hear what is its intended internal meaning. So, let us clarify it better. And then we move to [MUSIC] Okay, so these kind of progressions are very effective and you can utilize them in your own playing. So without the root. [MUSIC] And we've completed the cycle. During the next two sessions I'll be joined by Charlie Carr on the trumpet. Luke Norris on the saxophone and the rhythm section with Tyrone Allen on the base and Daniel Sunshine on the drums. And we will discuss various techniques of improvisation using the blues progression discussed during this and the previous lecture.