Yet another way to frame leadership behaviors is by using a framework called transformational leadership. Academics have talked about transformational leadership for a long time. It's often defined as a pattern of behavior that inspires followers to commit to a shared vision, behaviors that provide meaning to a follower's work and set the leader up as a role model. Now, the transformational aspect comes from the leader's ability to transform the way followers view their work. Because it's thought of as a pattern of behavior, it means that you have to engage in several different behaviors consistently. What is that set of behaviors? They are inspirational motivation, or what we'll call vision, intellectual stimulation, or what you can call challenge, individualized consideration, or what you might call coaching, and idealized influence, which consists of charisma and role-model-like behavior. In their book, The Leadership Challenge, James Kouzes and Barry Posner have written about leader behaviors that are very closely aligned to the transformational leadership framework. Those dimensions are, model the way, inspire a shared vision, challenge the process, enable others to act, and encourage the heart. I've highlighted the terminology that's probably easiest for you to remember on both slides, but I wanted you to see all of it so that you'd recognize transformational leadership behaviors regardless of the framework specifics, or whether you read about it in the popular press or in academic work. Now, these dimensions might sound familiar to you because, of course, you filled out a survey responding to how you think the people around you see you, your colleagues, your direct reports if you have any, your boss, even your boss's boss. Now, let's reflect on these. Would they describe you as someone that communicates a compelling shared vision of the future? Would they say you challenge people toward innovation by looking at problems from different angles? How much would they agree you attend to the needs of others, by spending time on learning and development? Would most agree that you model the behavior you seek in others? Finally, do people see you as charismatic? Thinking about all of these dimensions at once can be overwhelming, so let's go over them individually. First, we have inspirational motivation. Here are the survey items you responded to that correspond to that dimension. I'll give you a moment to reread them. But the point here is that the substance of these items can help you glean ways to improve. For instance, how much do you express your passion about your work? How enthusiastic are you? Generally, being positive helps tremendously. Is the language you use optimistic? How about descriptive? Abstract language can be seen as more vivid than concrete language? Now, the second dimension, intellectual stimulation. Here, again, are the survey items. How critically do you think about how you do your work? Are you willing to question the status quo? Do you respond positively when others question the status quo? Here are some suggestions for becoming better at displaying intellectual stimulation. For example, you should challenge employees appropriately as opposed to doing the work for them even if doing so takes more time for you than just doing it yourself. When your followers are unsure, before you provide them with solutions, it can help to ask for their input. The third transformational leadership dimension, as you know, is individualized consideration. Again, see the survey items. Here you can ask yourself, how much do you focus on developing your followers as individuals? Do they tend to come to you with problems or successes, and if not, have you given them the time and space to do so? Here are some suggestions for becoming better at displaying intellectual stimulation: Schedule consistent one-on-one time, express personalized gratitude and appreciation, and provide consistent feedback. Finally, the broadest dimension is idealized influence, here are those survey items. Some keywords to note are highlighting values and beliefs that are moral or ethical. What's your sense of purpose or mission? Do you tend to elicit pride and respect? Here are a few suggestions for becoming better at displaying idealized influence. Align your behaviors with organizational values. Also, when you're making decisions, focus on what's right versus what's easy or cost-effective. Also, focus on others as opposed to your own self-interest.