Well, about German Holland. Again, as I was saying. That's the one. Yes. All right, next time when I lecture I will have prepared list of names. Murray would say I'm just too lazy. >> No. >> Benjamin and Holland, again. >> Deep into his microphone. >> Again it's surprise. These two countries are really so similar to one another and Holland was in 1940, the Germans occupied Holland very easily, very quickly. Carried on the program and people in Amsterdam went on strike. That is the first, and as far as I believe, the only instance where people went on strike on behalf of the Jews. The consequence was that of course, the strike was broken. Those who were involved in it were arrested and steps were taken against the Jews. Now, what they did at Vancy, they set up quotas from various Western European countries for deportation. France had the largest quota because it had the largest Jewry. Holland had about something like 140,000 Jews. France had about 350,000. Belgium had about 80,000 approximately. Now, when Holland came under civilian occupation Holland, just like Denmark, the Dutch were Germanic people and ultimately, though they did not make it explicit, it seems that the ultimate goal of the Nazis was to incorporate Holland into the Nazi Reich. And the German Reich. And at the very outset they introduced all laws, which were already in existence in Germany and in Holland. But it was a civilian administration. Civilian administration meaning that German returns eventually, and Austria trio came to be the controllers of Dutch affairs. And these people who were close to one another, were a determined and decisive core who had been called in Vienna Eastern Front. He considered this, indeed, a very central goal to make Holland free of Jews. And the Dutch Jews, who were asked if they registered, and they were picked up by the Nazis with their Dutch collaborators, and they fulfilled a norm, which was set advance. And ultimately the Germans managed to kill over three quarters of the Dutch Jewry. Which is, as I see in percentage terms, was the worst in Western Europe. By far. Belgium came under military occupation. That is, German military occupation. The Belgian king stayed in office, and the Dutch jeweler went to England and set up a government in exile, and the character of the Belgium Jewry was very different from the Dutch Jewry. The Dutch Jewry was among the best integrated. The Belgian Jews, by contrast, a very large percentage of them, over half of them, were recent immigrants into Belgium, who escaped from Germany. Escaped from eastern Europe in the course of the 1930s. And you would expect that it is precisely the newcomers who would be the first victims of deportations. And indeed this is what happened in France, and indeed in every government is most likely to give up their foreign Jews first. But in Belgium it turned out differently, that is the Dutch Jews registered when they were asked because they took it for granted as citizens. This is their obligation. >> Right. >> The Belgian Jews, by contrast, had absolutely no faith in the authorities and in the government. And so they went into hiding. They escaped France or wherever. And consequently, they had a much better chance of survival and less then half of them were killed. Less than half of them were. By the way, the way this went is that Jews were asked to assemble They were kept in Holland and Belgium and also in France, in holding centers before they were deported to extermination centers. The misfortune of the Dutch Jewry was that Auschwitz, at the time, was overcrowded, and so the Dutch Jews were sent to Sobibor. And as we talked about in the previous occasion, Sobibor was an extermination camp where there were no selections. And consequently those who were sent there were killed. But of course everywhere in western Europe, certainly including Holland, Jews received a greater degree of support from their fellow countrymen than anywhere in the East. And so, Dutch Jews, even German Jews, were, on occasion, hidden by their countrymen. This was much more likely to happen than in the case of the East.