On May 16th, 1961, a group of military forces occupied Korea Broadcasting System Office, an important post. and announced that the military revolution is successful and also declared that Republic of Korea is under military rule. The main actor was Park Chung-Hee. He was made the general of the Republic of Korea Army. And as you can see in the photo, he was aided by the two important person. One on the left side is Park Jung Gyu, later he became his bodyguard. And he was very powerful during the park chung hee government. And on the right side with papatrooper dress is CHA JI CHUL He also become bodyguard of Park Chung Hee. They were the main forces of the military coup. Of course there are some including former Prime Minister Kim Jong Un. The 8th class of Korean Military Academy. They staged a very successful military coup, took over the power and ended the second republic. Why then, May 16th, 1961, military coup take place? Obviously most important thing was how the push factor dynamics of military politics. At a time, young Turks in the military could then make a promotion. There were too many generals. Those young Turks at rank of full colonel and lieutenant colonel did not see any feature. Therefore, in other words, promotional congestion in the military was one of the most important push factors. Driving military force out into the real politics. And they were extremely dissatisfied with promotion and assignment, and also they were very, Disenchanted by the cut in defense budgets by the second republic. And at the same there was a widespread economic hardship and social chaos. [INAUDIBLE] in civil politics in the name's of people's salvation. As you can see, what is really interesting is that there are revolutionary pledges. Obviously they declare the strong anti-communism as the first pledge, because at the time, General Park Chung-Hee was accused of being a socialist sympathizer. Okay, even he was jailed in 1948 by being implicated into one of leftist military rebellion in area. Okay, therefore new leaders of military coup want to send a very clear message to the United States and South Korea that they are anti communist. And once they declared their respect for the U.N. Charter and called relations with the United States in other free nations, in that way they differentiate themself from the North Korean Communist Regime. And the most important thing is the eradication of corruption, okay? They believed that the corruption was widespread during the First Republic. And also they have to establish a self supporting economy and salvage Korean people from poverty and under development. Since, Korean unification is a dream for all Koreans, that they express that the deal make every efforts towards national re unification. And also they made it very clear that they would transfer government to the city being ruled as soon as revolutionary missions were accomplished. Then the military ruled South Korea from 1961 to 1963. And the Supreme Revolutionary Council won the entire country. During that period of time Park Chung-Hee established the Korean Central Intelligence Agency which was quite notorious for its intervention in civil politics and arrest. And repression of civil society. Eventually they transferred the government to civilians. Then General Park Chung-hee declared the candidacy for the Democratic Republican Party. He ran against former president Yun Po Sun But Park Chung-hee won the election by a narrow margin. And he became the supporter president, first president of the third republic. And also, he was getting support from the military, and bureaucrat, and Chaebols. Chaebol means that the busiest conglomerates. But I would argue that the Park Chung-Hee leadership during the 3rd Republic can be characterized by the soft authoritarianism. The reason is very simple, because there were regular elections. Elections were were fairly free and [INAUDIBLE]. But in 1968 there was a major change because Park Chung-hee pushed for the constitutional amendment so that he could run for third-term presidency. That was a quite huge citizen protest in opposition against the constitutional amendment. But Park pushed for it and paved the way to his third term in presidency. But major change came in 1972. Contrary to public expectation, Park Chung-hee declared the Yushin regime. Yushin the first two dissertation or rebuilding, restoration, has several meaning. The term came from Japan. Japan's Meiji restoration or resolution There are still scholarly debates on the genesis of the Yushin regime in 1972. Some political scientists argue that Yushin was declared in order to cooperate with social and economic crisis emanating from the industry deepening. But some other argue that it is simply because of his personal preoccupation with his political power. Park Chung Hee simply want to rule the country. And he believed that he is the only person that can save Korea and pushed for the modernization and make fundamental transformation of South Korean economy politics and society. Still some others argue that Park Chung-Hee have declared the Yushin in order to deal with national security crisis at a time studying from 1968 in North Korea made the raid on the presidential office pool house in 1968. And afterwards, North Korea continued to show quite extensive military complications in South Korea, and therefore prices went up. So he sort of developed a more systematic reaction to North Korean military provocation. In order to cope with national security crisis, he though that there is a need for a more strong presidency. Therefore under but he infected justified Yushin restoration in terms of crisis of national security but that was unfortunate beginning of imperial and permanent presidency in South Korea. The Yushin constitution is notorious for several reasons. President was elected for six years, but with no time limit. Literally speaking, he could become president for life. The people elected delegate to the national conference for unification, electoral college that was charged with electing the president. But requirement for candidacy was so stringent only one candidate could be on the conference's ballot. It obviously that institution guaranteed the election of a president, why? Because President Park has the right to appoint one third of the National Assembly, okay. Which virtually guaranteed parliamentary majority in his hand and was day elect president. Yushin regime was repressive rule. If we call it hard authoritarianism. It was characterized by rule by emergency decrees and popular sector was excluded. While farmers and chaebols, big business, were corrupted by the Park Chung-Hee government, but I would say that the Yushin regime triggered the activation of rogue citizens of society protesting opposition against Park Chung-Hee. During the Yushin regime, under one hand, yes. Park Chung Hee was able to push for heavy chemical industrialization which was essential for the defense industrialization. But push for heavy chemical industrialization was initially successful but later became major burden on the national economy. And at the same time in the name of national security and economic goal, Park Chung Hee was neglecting equality side. At the same time, repressed the civil society. But, toward the end of the 1970s, Park Chung-hee was facing several challenges. Most important challenge was economic challenge. The economy was not working. There was over investment in the heavy chemical sector. Inflation was rampant, okay? Economic life of citizens was deteriorating. And therefore,there was social protest against that one. As people's discontent became widespread, he again begin to repress public discontent. Means, I am fixed. here was major citizen protests in Busan Masan area and student protests was on the rise. And protested was unwise. And then, there was Innocent debate on how to deal with this public protests. Then had the Korea Central Intelligence Central Agency KCIA argue that they have to take a more moderate approach to deal with the public protests. But as I pointed out is another his bodyguard had complete different view. He strongly believed hot line policy on this citizen protest. It still was good between Kim Jye-gyun, Sa Ji-Chul. In fact became the for him. And October 26th, 1979, they were having dinner, and particularly, Kim Jae-kyu invited President Park Chung-hee to the safe house of the Korean Central Intelligence Agency. While they're having wine and dining, Kim Jae-kyu assassinated Park Chung-hee and Cha Ji Chul. And it was end, it was a really tragic end of Park Chung-hee but it is ironic though because Kim Jae-kyu was most trusted confidant of Park Chung-hee. They are the same classmate. The second class of Korea Military Academy. More than that, Kim Jae-kyu was student of Park Chung-hee when Park Chung taught Mungyeong Elementary School. The extent, Park Chung has full trust in Kim Jae-kyu but he was assassinated by the very person.