Now, let's going to President Rhee Syngman. The photo here was taken in early 1950s. You can clearly see a grandfatherly figure of President Rhee Syngman. President Syngman has a very, very unique personal background. He was born on March 26, 1875 in Hwanghae province, which is a country in North Korea. He's a descendant of a royal family. Remember, Joseon Dynasty was ruled by Yi family and therefore he was a descendant of one of princes of the Joseon Dynasty. He had a Confucian Chinese education in childhood, then he went to Paichai High School. Paichai School, Paichai Hak Tang was founded by American missionary workers. There, he received a Western education, but he was put in jail in almost five years. Because anytime in late 19th century, he was a very active journalist and then he wrote a critical article. And because of that, he was put in jail for five years. But after he got out of it, he went to the United States with the help of American missionary workers. First, he went to George Washington University, but he didn't stay long there, then he went to Harvard University to get Master's Degree and then get a PhD from Princeton University. At a time, Woodrow Wilson was the president of Princeton University. He wrote a doctorate dissertation on the neutrality and how America can influence the adoption of neutrality principal by other nations. he get his text from international relations. Afterwards in 1919 when the Korean Provisional Government was founded in Shanghai, he became the first president of the Korea Provisional Government. But later, he was expelled from the position, because of the charge that he wrongly used the official seal of the provisional government. Anyhow, President Lee was in a kind of controversial figure. He was Western trained and a leader. On the other hand, those who were stationed Shanghai they were very much traditional. There was a conflict between two factions. And then after we got national independence in 1945, he returned from the United States at the time he was based in Hawaii and then he become first president to leave Korea and he ran the country from 1948 to 1960. But as we discussed in the first class on April 19th, 1960, there was a student revolution. And as a result of the student revolution, he resigned from his condition and took exile in Hawaii in 1960 and he died in 1965. He never had a chance to come back to Korea. Therefore, I would say that he was a very paramount leader He has all kinds of backgrounds. Traditional Confucian education, Western education and he had a lot of friends in Washington including President Woodrow Wilson. He was one of very few Koreans who understood International politics. In 1940, he wrote a very interesting book called the Japan Inside Out. In the book, he predicted Japanese surprise attach on Pearl Harbor, the so-called Japan triggered Second World War. To that extent, he was a very insightful person, then what are his personal traits? He became president of the Republic of Korea in his 70s. Therefore, it was natural for him to patriarchal. And also, he was very proud of his origin as a descendant of royal family. Therefore, he has kind of imperial attitude. He was a kind of cloud above in a sky. He would someone who is different from others and he had really an odd mix of Korean, and Western cultural influences. In fact, his wife Madam Francesca was a Westerner. She was Czech origin on presently met in the United States married and came to Korea. Of course, they didn't have any child. He adopted one child. And how is the leadership style? I would say, he's a very paternalistic vision. His governments has very selected number of aids whom he trusted, for example Lee Ki-Poong. He was speaker of national assembly. Later, he became vice president and Lee Ki-Poong's son became adopted son of Rhee Syngman.Therefore Lee Ki Poong and Rhee Syngman were like family members You can adopt is some of them, if it's man and family members. And more than that, he delegated his power to Digi Bong. Therefore, Digi Bong was learning the political show. As a matter of fact, the April 19th student student revolution took place, because of abuse and misuse of political power by Lee Ki-Poong. But therefore, those who were trusted by President Syngman really exercise a great deal of power and influence. And also President Syngman had great pride, as the founder of the nation. In the 1950s,Korean used to call him as a Gookbu, the father of the nation. There's a big debate in South Korea. Because if President Syngman is father of the nation, then what about Shanghai, Korea provisional government. If the Republic of Korea origin dates back to the 1919s, the Korea provisional government in Shanghai 1919. Therefore, we cannot treat 1948 as the beginning of the New Republic. Its origin date back to 1919. If there's a big historical debate, which should be the founding date of the nation and whether President Syngman is the father of the nation or not. But still, he is founder the new nation. We cannot deny it. Also, there was a soft authoritarianism. Here, what I mean by soft authoritarianism means that there was all the procedural mechanism of democracy. Elections, political party systems and other kinds of democratic portrait. Checks and balances among the three branches of government and etc. There was a great deal of abandoning or distortion of these democratic procedures in the sense that I called President Syngman leadership style is soft authoritarianism. How about his ideological orientation? He was a firm believer in liberal democracy. The reason is very simple. He spent most of his adult life in the United States. He got education at Harvard University and Princeton University. Therefore, all these ideas of a liberal democracy was embedded into a mental air thoughts. At the same time, extreme anti-communism, but that is a reflection. Of course, first of all, we got the United States since the beginning of the Cold War, it was very fierce empire communist movement in the United States. And therefore, President Syngman could have been partly influenced by that one, but the other reason is between the three years after Korean Independence from 1945 to 1948. There were fierce fightings between right and left and President Syngman was representing right side in those corporations American government, but that is like needs more communist regime. Therefore, coming straight from communism. Anti-communism comes one of the theology of the firs Republic. Enormously, strong anti-Japanese. And I still remember, I was in a elementary school boy in 1950s during the East Man Period, then we were taken to the movie theaters to watch this some of the so-called movies that glorify President Syngman. But in a movie, President Syngman is portrayed as one of the leading anti-Japanese meeting, Japanese independent fighting. Anyhow, President Syngman had kinds of inherent dislike of Japanese. That is why there was a hard time between Japan and South Korea during the first republic. Another important orientation is his unification policy. He strongly believed that the North want unification. Meaning, what no matter how, whatever means we use, we should unify the Korea. We should move it North Korea and should get rid of this goddamn communist regime. Therefore, that really northward unification policy is really tied up to anti-communism. How about his power base? Obviously, he was a pro-American. Therefore, when he came to Korea in 1945, there was an american military government. An American military government ruled Korea from 1945 to 1948. For three years time period, President Syngman got great support from General Haji, the head of American Military government in South Korea. Therefore, American Military government extended all kinds of assistance to President Syngman. Therefore, American Military government was, or United States of America was one of the great sources of his power, the Liberal Party. He founded the Liberal Party as a way of countering Korean Democratic Party, its rival party and the Korean Liberal Party has become the source of his power. And also, President Syngman worked from North Korea, they're from refugees from North Korea. We had huge refugees from Korea. Now, we said that we have 10 million refugees from North Korea. Then in 1950s, all this refugees from North Korea became a strong support in the President Rhee Syngman. Christians and some business, and anti-communist conservative forces. They all became the basis of his political power. Now, how about the decision-making style? President Syngman knew how to delegate his power, but he delegated his power to the Liberal Party. What he had in his mind was that he really wanted to make the Liberal Party as Lenin's Party, party as a vanguard. Party prevailing over the state, therefore liberal party was strong At a time, secretary general of the Liberal Party exercise power to the extent that he literally, the secretary general currently appointed the cabinet post and the head of the major banks and etc. The Liberal Party exercises greater personal power. And also, he believed in a very small presidential staff. During the Joseon Dynasty, there were only six ministries and then President Lee thought that I only need six secretaries who can handle national and the governance. Therefore, he favored the smaller presidential staff. However, on certain issues, he had direct control. Most important thing was foreign currency. To my recollection, President Syngman required the authorization of spending of foreign currency more than $500. Therefore, you can imagine, of course in 1950, South Korea was very poor country, but the president had to authorize spending of foreign currency above $500 to the extent he was a country tradition. Of course, our UK, US alliance issue that belongs to discretionary domain of president. Likewise, on certain sensitive issues that he extend, he had full control over those issues. But other routine national governance, he delegated to the cabinet through the Liberal Party. Now that is very interesting pattern. Okay, then how can we evaluate President Rhee Syng-man? And the evaluation Rhee Syng-man has divided entire South Korea. A strong pro Rhee Syng-man forces, strong anti Rhee Syng-man forces. Conservative support for Rhee Syng-man and made him very, very high credit but on the other hand the bold/progress forces in South Korea argued with he was faint president. But I will say that then that he has both sides. You cannot come up with really either or, either or kinds of dichotomous evaluation of President Rhee Syng-man. But we cannot deny that he played a very important role in founding the Liberal Korea. If he has element of being a father of a national founder. Right? The was a famous dictator, he resigned from his post and he took exile in Hawaii. That showed the sign of failure. Obviously he was an independence fighter, he was a diplomatic genius. He was a genius in dealing with the United States, he founded alliance using our state in 1954, that is his contribution. He knew the United States so well, he knew the psychology of Americans very well, therefore he was a very extremely skillful negotiator with the United States, okay? And also we cannot deny that no matter how soft authoritarian leader he was, he contributed institutionalizing liberal democracy in South Korea. But however, we cannot deny the negative side. He didn't deal with the Korean way effectively. That is why he was really deceived by his defense minister, okay. Those Koreans were coming to the outskirts of Seoul. But our defense minister was still telling the Korean, the Seoul citizens, that we'll be winning the war. We are winning the war. And more than that, so many Seoul people had to free Seoul by crossing the Han River bridge. But since those Koreans were pouring into Seoul area defense, in consultation with President Rhee Syng-man, Defense Minister. No. no. Bombed. We were breached. So many people were captured in Seoul City under the North's commune rule. If we know that all this management of the Korean War has become source of controversy. And also he was a dictator, okay? Some people say that no, it can be done. He's not dictator in the but he was a patriarchical leader. But to the eyes of other he was a dictator, okay? But some people thought he was soft authoritarian. And I personally do not believe that the President Rhee Syng-man committed any corruption. There was a creed but that was only shown after his exile. No personal waste or communication couldn't be found in his personal belongings. However those who were surrounding President Rhee Syng-man committed tremendous corruption. And that really outraged the Korean people. Overall scholars argue that his governance of, his management of national governors was rather poor. In view of this, okay there is a positive side and a negative side. Therefore we should look into both sides. But if you capitalize on one side, positive or negative. Then that would lead to the rather biased evaluation of President Rhee Syng-man. Now President Rhee Syng-man, for whatever reasons, I would say that he was an heroic leader. But towards the end of his reign he had fainted governance and he came to a very tragic end.