Now let us come to President Kim Dae-jung. The photo shown here was taken, I think, after he retired from the presidency. Very, very natural face. President Dae-jung was born on January 6, 1924 in Sinan, South Jeollanam Province. There's an island called the Haui-do. He was born there. He is graduate from the Mokpo Commercial High School. Mokpo Commercial High School Japanese very well known in the high school. And there is a record that shows that he attended there. In Genko, in university in Manchuria. But he didn't really finish his degree there. Then while he was subbing as a member of National Assembly in 1960s, he attended the graduate school at Chung-Yin University. But he got a Ph.D., no a Doctorate from the Russian Diplomatic Academy. This is based in a doctorate degree. He worked on a doctorate degree. And he was recognized by the Russian Diplomatic Academy. He didn't have so called. Not like Rhee Syngman and Park Chung-Hee. After his high school graduation his academic, record shows some kind of mixture, okay? But he is very well-known. A fighter for democracy, human right in South Korea. Became president of the Republic of Korea after three failed attempt, okay? And he was a winner of Nobel Peace Prize. And he passed away on August 18, 2009. But what is interesting is this. He was, first he became president candidate in 1971 and his opponent was President Park Geun-hye. The presidential race of 1971 was really neck and neck. There one of the reasons why President declared the Constitution. To an extent, he was a very powerful political leader in his 40's. And the second one, 87 he lost election. And third one is 1992, in lost election. After three failed attempts, he became president in 1997. Personal traits. He's an extremely deliberative person. Extremely prudential, okay. And has shown a high level of self control. With patience, he was a perfectionist and was very competent. His competence has come from his reading. He was jailed and imprisoned. Jailed several times. In 1970's, and even 1980, he was jailed by the regime for the charge of treason and he was sentenced to death. But with American help, and international help he finally get a pardon from the sentence. And he took exile in the United States. Which wasn't really paramount leader. Ups and downs. But he was one of very few democratic fighters who stood against authoritarian rulers in South Korea. But he was kind. His competence, his knowledge came from his readings, particularly while he was in the prison. He is quite good at English, but he learned English while he was jailed in prison. In Englishstyle style he was a democratic leader. He still adds some paternalistic elements. This is why his followers have formed this kind of informal affection called a affection. Is an area in which his private residence is. Him. Okay? He has shown the kind of paternalistic leadership to his followers. He's extremely persuasive. And he has adopted inter subjective approach. He tend to place himself in others. And he is also great orator. Ideological orientation. Yeah, it is all-known that he was a progress leader. He supported mass participatory politics. And also he supported mass economy, okay. A mixture of liberal democracy and social democracy. He had shown a mixture of liberalism and realism in foreign policy. He adopted the so-called productive welfare policy, which is a very interesting pattern of combination of productive activities and social welfare. But when, just before he got elected as President in December, 1997, it was a major economic crisis in South Korea. And then when he became President in 1998, he had really daunting challenge of overcoming economic crisis. In the process of managing economic crisis, he had to comply with conditionalities imposed by International Monetary Fund. Those conditionalities were composed of macroeconomics stabilization and structural adjustments. In the process he adopted neolithic is why a lot of progressives criticized him but he really affected defected from progressive ideals and adopted a conservative neo-liberal platform. Okay? But still, he never got away from his progressive background. Power base. You can think about him in terms of extreme. He's from the progressive coalition, worker, youth, middle class, were his supporters. And also he drew absolute support from the Honam province. and if you go back to Park Chung-Hee he derived absolute support from Gyeongsang Province, but he got his support from Honam Province.That was his power base. This is making style. Yeah, he knew how to make a delegation. For example, defence policy, he delegate to defence minister. But inter-Korean relations, economy crisis management, he had by himself. He exerted very detailed management which was important in policy issues. Therefore he combined really the delegation of certain issues. And direct control of important policy issues. He knew how to privatize public policy okay. And one other pattern is he was extremely persistent okay. Positive side yes. He manage the worst economic crisis in South Korea effectively and particularly, you know, this idea of so-called gold collection campaign. At the time, South Korea was suffering from a lack of foreign exchanges And our central bank has less than you know 7 billion dollars as a foreign reserve. You need to have a conscious. He appealed to the people. Then Korean people began to sell their gold to. Way to find an exchange. And I think that is a very unique phenomenon that would alarm world South Korea becomes an under state because of the people's sacrifice for the You're going to gain up South Korea. And also. He managed to have first South Korean Sunny. He was the Sunshine Policy. Many engagement policies in North Korea. I would say that his approach to North Korea was kind of very innovative. okay and transforming okay. And also he continued to consolidate democracy. The negative side again, you know, his two sons were implicated with corruption charges. And some people argue the disjunction in policy really benefited North Korea not South Korea. And also his progressive stance polarize Korean society. But overall, I would say that his contribution is far greater than his Liability. He was a political leader with great asset, which minimal in liabilities. The negative side is interpretation. Other than his two sons' implication with corruption charges.