When we talk about unification then we shouldn't think about what kind of policy south screen government has taken with regard to unification. Perhaps, the most famous unification policy is called the Sunshine Policy. Sunshine policies that past taken by the president Kim Dae Jung during 1998 through 2002. He derived the term sunshine from the east of Aesop's well-known fable of the North Wind and the Sun. He believed the warmth of sunshine, rather than heavy wind, is more effective in removing one's heavy coat. In other words, in making North Korea adopt opening and reform. However, the Sunshine Policy's kind of nickname, which President Kim de Jung personally liked. Its official title is the policy of reconciliation and cooperation. In Korean we call it화해협력정책or it is often called as engagement policy. In fact, the Sunshine Policy is nothing new, because even though president Kim Jong-Un proposed the Sunshine Policy. It origin dates back to 1992 basic agreement on non-aggression, reconciliation and exchange and cooperation of Roh Tae-woo government, okay. And in fact, the 1988 President Roh Tae-Woo declared the so-called the Korean Commonwealth Unification Model. And according to their model he proposed three approach to three stages to Korean communication. First stage is exchanging cooperation and founding a peaceful coexistence between North and South. Second stage is creation of creation of so called a Union of North South Korean state. State has interim state, and third stage it is called the Olidation of single unified states. Therefore, President Kim Jon Un aimed at this second stage or interim stages of the creation of Union of North and South Korean state. That become the foundation of this Sunshine Policy. Sunshine Policy has three principles. First principle is that non-toleration of a military provocation by North Korea. Because at a time in 1988 1998 and 1999, the President President Kim Dae-Jung was accused of being pro North Korean sympathizers. Therefore, in order to diffuse any kind of accusations that he rather created an ambiguous security posture, he set them the strong security posture. Non-tolerance of military provocation by North Korea is first principle. Second principle is if North Korea does not rely on military provocation, if North Korea does not show military provocation and he will also abandon unification by absorption. Trying to believe North Korean can set up South Korean attempts to unify entire Korean peninsula absorption. And then third principle is realization of de facto, as oppose to de jure, unification through the promotion of exchanges and cooperation,mutual trust building and peaceful co-existence. Thus, the sunshine policy aims at promoting the union of North and South Korean states. The Sunshine Policy had several operating principles. First operating principle, strategic offensive. People argue that Sunshine Policy's a very moderate policy, defense policy. But I would argue that this It was an extremely strategically offensive policy, why? You can make it a simple metaphor between sunshine and cloud. Cloud is temporal, sunshine is constant. If North Korea tried to block outside efforts to send sunshine, eventually cloud will be lifted, sunshine will getting to North Korea. In a similar mode, now, President Kim De-Jung really wanted to pursue engagement with North Korea, despite North Korean rejection and negation. Second is strategic dualism. Strategic dualism has four important components. First is what economy first politics later so if your president wanted to separate economy from politics if North Korea engaged in military confrontation than he wanted to continue economic transactions. Good example is this When there was a naval clash in the West Sea. The West Sea was the Sea of War but continuing mount Kim Goyang Choi's project in East Coast, okay? He strongly believed economic transactions in corporations are the most important foundations in which he can build trust with North Korea. Death even though there is, there was a political half time, he would continue economic corporation making of Korea. Second one is civilian first, officers later. In the past, even right now, President Park and the government emphasize that officer talks first. Private exchange later, but Kim Dae-Jung took complete different approach. He urged citizens in society to have interactions with North Korea. And the government would be utilized the civilian context and corporations as a way of enhancing official contact and negotiation. And third principle was easy things first and difficult things later, okay. He didn't put in a high politic and military first because it is very difficult to make any breakthroughs. It was in a hard issues. Therefore, he started with economy exchange, social exchange, that kind of easy things first. And finally, he was emphasizing give first, take later. He would understanding which partition between North and South Korea, not in terms of economic reciprocity which can be characterized equivalence and immediacy. But he was emphasizing inter-Korean relations in terms of social exchange. That is why he argued that keep first take later. And the other important operating principle was international collaboration for inter-Korean relations and dismantling fo Cold War structure. President Kim Dae-Jung was very, very interesting. He believed four major powers, the US, China, Russia, Japan played a very important role into shaping the destiny of the Korean Peninsula, but he rejected any kind of determinism by major powers. He believes that South Korea and North Korea if they open and work together then they can overcome international forces. And North, South Korea can create a peaceful unification on the Korean Peninsula. If when he emphasize international collaboration, he was really talking about South Korean proactive effort. By forming a national collaboration to build peaceful coexistence and peaceful unification on the Korean Peninsula. And finally, he emphasized the domestic consensus and unity it wasn't that easy as usual discuss later. Korea was extremely polarized but emphasized the importance of Domestic harmony and consensus. Then what kind of achievement the Sunshine Policy has achieved? Obviously, promotion and exchange and cooperation, you can clearly see. In 1998, economic exchange, trade exchange between North and South Korea is about $200 million. But in 2007, when progress government, the last year of progress government the figure went to $1.2 billion. Therefore, you can see the rocket height increase in economic exchange in North and South Korea. And personal exchange is much higher. You can see 1995 less than about 500 people exchanged, okay. But that went up in 2007 over 150,000 people went North Korea. Likewise there was of course that excludes South Korean people's ability to [INAUDIBLE]. But there's a huge in the exchange between North and South Korea and [INAUDIBLE] increased. Okay, and also you can clearly see, you can, particularly starting from 2010, 11, 12 this is towards end of the military government, Yeah towards end of military government the overt military conflict has fundamentally reduced. Another most important thing is there was a trust-building through the first and second Korean summit. Then during the First Korean Sunnyday adopted on June 15th, joint South-North Korea joint declaration. There, the most important thing is that they will cooperate to bring job Korean unification. through them Between themselves, independent of external intervention that is in line with July 4th joint communique, but the second one is very important. That is North and South Korean leaders recognized the commonality between South Korea's proposal for confederation and North Korean proposal for low level federation and pursue national unification along this line. That's it. For the first time, North and South Korean leadership exchanged views on the borders of Korean unification. But here, the South Korean proposal for confederation should be replaced by the not confederation is a union of state. And those Korean proposal for low level federation that's the equivalent of confederation as in at the time in June I think though at the time in June 2000 South Korean officers mistranslated Korean text. They're the same and also October 4th joint Declaration of 2007 and also it has quite extensive the declaration. But the most important thing is that it reaffirmed that it will continue to joint declaration and transform inter-Korean relationship and an endorse a mutual respect and trust. Resolve inter-Korean issues in the spirit of reconciliation, cooperation, and unification. Put an end to military hostilities and mitigate tension and guarantee peace on the Korean peninsula. And in doing that, particular interesting is create a special and cooperation zone in the West Sea and promote humanitarian cooperation projects. That is the most important one. But this post June 15th joint declaration and October 4 summit declaration were never carried out by the succeeding government. Meaning Lee Myung-Bak government and Park Geun-Hye government.