As you have seen the Sunshine Policy has been quite successful. However, there were several limitations and constraints. The most important constraint was a very short duration of policy implementation. If you look back, the Sunshine Policy was not really implemented smoothly during the Kim Dae Jung period. Only from June, 2000 to November, 2000, you can say that's in a 6-month period. Were very robust but other than those six month period inter-Korean relations were virtually stalled. It was the same for the government, when was inaugurated as president of Korea in February 2003, okay? Because of tense US, North Korean relations, North Koreans were not coming forward to talk with the South Koreans. If he was trying to resuscitate inter-Korean exchange and cooperations, starting from March 2003, but he was not very successful. And he was able to hold to, into second Korean Summit in October 2007. And only two months from October 2007 to December 2007 In the sunshine policy, or engagement policy, which in North Korea worked very actively. Therefore, you can say that during Kim Dae-joong period, only six months. And Roh Moo-hyun period, only two months were valued for the sunshine policy. If altogether you can talk about eight months time period. But other than that, North Korea did not move and respond to South Korean proposals. So, their inter-Korean relations was stalled, that was one of the fundamental limitations to the Sunshine Policy, why? Because it had something to do with the advent of the Bush administration. When George W. Bush was inaugurated as president in January 2001, and his first remarks was what? He described North Korea as Axis of Evil. He made it his hostile intent and policy in North Korea very clear North Korea began to retreat and we get North Korea began to be very suspicious of American motives. And when North Korea when detected hostile intent and policy coming from Washington D.C. Yang refused to even have a talk with South Korea. And they regarded Washington and Seoul as one single body. If their ties with North Korea and United States become, somewhat, Ethnic, then things works smoothly, then they will have adjusted their relationship with South Korea. Therefore, the advent of the Bush administration and each hardline policy in North Korea gave great setback to The Sunshine Policy. Whenever Bush administration was hostile at North Korea, North Korea refused to have any talks with South Korea. When the United States relaxed its hostile policy in North Korea Pyongyang began to come out and talk with the South Korea. To that extent, in that sense, the Sunshine Policy was fundamentally constrained by the American policy on North Korea. And third, change of political leadership in South Korea, Produced a profound impact on age policy in North Korea. For example, President Lee Myung-bak was inaugurated in 2008, February 2008. Officially, he said he would selectively continue Nomyeon policy. But after in the cities of event with North Korea. He just rejected, you know, Roh Moo-Hyun policy. Anything but Roh Moo-Hyun was kind of mutter of his government policy in North Korea. And, therefore, everything was stuck President Park Geun-Hye is the same, initially Park Geun-Hye proposed so called Korean Peninsula trust politics And she hinted that she might pursue in a Sunshine Policy but she didn't do that. She again began to pursue how to align policy in North Korea therefore changing in South Korea domestic politics and has brought about major impact on the Sunshine Policies. The Sunshine Policy was not continued because of domestic politic changes. Finally, North Korea, we have a major problem with North Korea. North Korea's suspicion of the United States and its American centered policy, okay. Really screwed up the sunshine policy, okay. That is one of the perennial problem with North Korea. North Korea has always regarded South Korea as a puppet of America. If they strike a deal with the United States, then South Korea will automatically follow American policy and is what they call. Okay, now if North Korea can communicate in North Korea why blocking? Okay, it's ties with South Korea. Okay, and thought that the he can achieve it's national goals, but I think it is very misleading approach. But any how that kinds of North korean suspicion and America centered policy really undermine the foundation of sunshine policy. But as an extension of those limitations and constraints to conservatives in South Korea embodied the Sunshine Policy. First they criticized that the sunshine policy's a policy of nothing but the unilateral give away to North Korea. They call it Peojugi, there is no reciprocity, okay? That was one of the stupidest in the policy ever taken in a progress government and of course there are some counter arguments again. They argue that the conservative government definine this in terms of economic positive. Meaning what? You give $100 and take $100 worth of goods back. No, immediate exchange of same value. That is what the conservative argues, but the progressive argues that the inter-korean exchange shouldn't be social exchange, not economic exchange. It doesn't have to be equal in the value of items exchanged, and it should not based on the principle of intermediacy. There was a philosophical difference between the two, but anyhow. Criticize that sunshine policy is a policy in an arguable way. They argue that the sunshine policy has a fundamentally weakened the national security posture. Sunshine policy really removed youth, young people and that alertness against North Korea therefore they argued that the Sunshine Policy, ideologically. Disarmed the South Korean young people in fighting against North Korea. Here again, there is a fundamental difference between conservative and progressive. Conservative sees North Korea as a perpetual enemy, okay? No chance of change but progressive argue that yes, North Korea enemy But is not permanent enemies. Through the interaction and trust building, we can change North Korea from enemy into quasi enemy, even friend and partner. There is a fundamental difference in terms of perception of North Korea between conservative and progressives. Third one is conservatives argue that the Sunshine Policy failed because it didn't achieve what it was supposed to achieve. That is that industry changes North Korea. But here again, progressive, argue that, yes, there are numerous changes in North Korea. Particularly, North Korean people's attitudes completely changes. In the past, North Koreans tend to worship it's own leaders. 수령제, Leadership system, okay. But as a reject of the Sunshine Policy, an increased, interaction between North and South Korea. North Koreans now begin to worship, It's own on North Korean leader. Therefore, progress come up with all kinds of documentation in showing that there is signs of changes but conservative did not accept it. For example, in 2002, just after Sunshine Policy, Kim Il-Sung introduced the July 1st Economic Reform measures. That was partly because of the internal necessity but those are because of the influence of Kim Dae-Jung on North Korea. Of course the beginning of the second weekly crisis Kim Jon Un just didn't pursue the opening and reform. But the progress argued that there is good sign of the so called change in North Korea, okay? But again, there's kind of a parallel argument between conservatives and progress. Fourth one is conservative argues that the Sunshine Policy not only failed to prevent North Korea's nuclear path, but also in fact assisted North Korea in developing nuclear weapons, why? Because as keep away. All those money went to nuclear weapons development. If they argued the Sunshine Policy has become one of primary source of North Korea's nuclear. But again progress, you can't argue, that's a nonsensical argument. If that logic is cracked then what about first nuclear test was done in October First nuclear test was done in October, 9th 2006. And second was done in what? In what period? May 25th, 2009, and third and first nuclear testing was done during the Peojugi Period. If all those nuclear provocations by North Korea, three out of four were done during this conservative government. Therefore, whether South Korea gives money to North Korea or not, North Korea continued to build up nuclear weapons. Unless there is some kind of guarantee of a peace regime on the Korean peninsula. Therefore, progressives argued it is unfair to criticize Kim Jong-Un's government to be responsible for North Korean nuclear problem. And finally the conservatives argue that the Sunshine Policy was responsible for the polarization of domestic politics and society. Because Sunshine Policy was they argued that it was a pro-North Korean sympathizing policy. There are lots of South Koreans that opposed the idea, we should regard the Sunshine Policy. Korean society was divided between, progressive and conservative. Korean society was polarized. Korean society were afraid to form a national consensus, and they attributed to the Sunshine Policy. And the progress of leaders such as Kim Dae-Jung and Roh Mu-Hyun, there again progressive arguments that look. It is unfair to criticize that progressive government is responsible for the polarization of domestic politics and society. Because conservatives have been equally militant in their demands. It was a conservative hardline and blind critic of policy that led to the polarization of Korean society. Likewise, conservative critics have been under write. Progress responses have been equally strong. That is a really sign of the polarization of Korea society.